Title 26 — Internal Revenue

Code — Bankruptcy Related Statutes


Main Index


§ 25A • Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 108 • Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 221 • Interest on education loans

§ 529 • Qualified tuition programs

§ 530 • Coverdell education savings accounts

§ 1017 • Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1398 • Rules relating to individuals'

§ 1399 • No separate taxable entities for partnerships, corporations, etc.

§ 6012 • Persons required to make returns of income

§ 6020 • Returns prepared for or executed by Secretary

§ 6062 • Signing of corporation returns

§ 6213 • Restrictions applicable to deficiencies; petition to Tax Court

§ 6321 • Lien for taxes

§ 6322 • Period of lien

§ 6323 • Validity and priority against certain persons

§ 6334 • Property exempt from levy

§ 6501 • Limitations on assessment and collection

§ 6502 • Collection after assessment

§ 6503 • Suspension of running of period of limitation

§ 6658 • Coordination with title 11

§ 6672 • Failure to collect and pay over tax, or attempt to evade or defeat tax

§ 7425 • Discharge of liens

§ 7433 • Civil damages for certain unauthorized collection actions

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§ 25A. Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

(a) Allowance of credit. In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year the amount equal to the sum of—

(1) the Hope Scholarship Credit, plus

(2) the Lifetime Learning Credit.

(b) Hope Scholarship Credit

(1) and (2) (omitted)

(3) Eligible student. For purposes of this subsection, the term “eligible student” means, with respect to any academic period, a student who—

(A) meets the requirements of section 484(a)(1) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1091 (a)(1)), as in effect on the date of the enactment of this section, and

(B) is carrying at least 1/2 the normal full-time work load for the course of study the student is pursuing.

(f) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified tuition and related expenses

(A) In general. The term “qualified tuition and related expenses” means tuition and fees required for the enrollment or attendance of—

(i) the taxpayer,

(ii) the taxpayer’s spouse, or

(iii) any dependent of the taxpayer with respect to whom the taxpayer is allowed a deduction under section 151, at an eligible educational institution for courses of instruction of such individual at such institution.

(B) Exception for education involving sports, etc. Such term does not include expenses with respect to any course or other education involving sports, games, or hobbies, unless such course or other education is part of the individual’s degree program.

(C) Exception for nonacademic fees. Such term does not include student activity fees, athletic fees, insurance expenses, or other expenses unrelated to an individual’s academic course of instruction.

(2) Eligible educational institution. The term “eligible educational institution” means an institution—

(A) which is described in section 481 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1088), as in effect on the date of the enactment of this section, and

(B) which is eligible to participate in a program under title IV of such Act.

(g) Special rules

(1) Identification requirement. No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) to a taxpayer with respect to the qualified tuition and related expenses of an individual unless the taxpayer includes the name and taxpayer identification number of such individual on the return of tax for the taxable year.

(2) Adjustment for certain scholarships, etc. The amount of qualified tuition and related expenses otherwise taken into account under subsection (a) with respect to an individual for an academic period shall be reduced (before the application of subsections (b), (c), and (d)) by the sum of any amounts paid for the benefit of such individual which are allocable to such period as—

(A) a qualified scholarship which is excludable from gross income under section 117,

(B) an educational assistance allowance under chapter 30, 31, 32, 34, or 35 of title 38, United States Code, or under chapter 1606 of title 10, United States Code, and

(C) a payment (other than a gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance within the meaning of section 102 (a)) for such individual’s educational expenses, or attributable to such individual’s enrollment at an eligible educational institution, which is excludable from gross income under any law of the United States.

(3) Treatment of expenses paid by dependent. If a deduction under section 151 with respect to an individual is allowed to another taxpayer for a taxable year beginning in the calendar year in which such individual’s taxable year begins—

(A) no credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) to such individual for such individual’s taxable year, and

(B) qualified tuition and related expenses paid by such individual during such individual’s taxable year shall be treated for purposes of this section as paid by such other taxpayer.

(4) Treatment of certain prepayments. If qualified tuition and related expenses are paid by the taxpayer during a taxable year for an academic period which begins during the first 3 months following such taxable year, such academic period shall be treated for purposes of this section as beginning during such taxable year.

(5) Denial of double benefit. No credit shall be allowed under this section for any expense for which a deduction is allowed under any other provision of this chapter.

(6) No credit for married individuals filing separate returns. If the taxpayer is a married individual (within the meaning of section 7703), this section shall apply only if the taxpayer and the taxpayer’s spouse file a joint return for the taxable year.

(7) Nonresident aliens. If the taxpayer is a nonresident alien individual for any portion of the taxable year, this section shall apply only if such individual is treated as a resident alien of the United States for purposes of this chapter by reason of an election under subsection (g) or (h) of section 6013.

(h) and (i) (omitted)

(Added Pub. L. 105–34, title II, § 201(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 799; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, § 401(g)(2)(A), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 59.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 25A)


§ 108. Income from discharge of indebtedness

(a) Exclusion from gross income

(1) In general. Gross income does not include any amount which (but for this subsection) would be includible in gross income by reason of the discharge (in whole or in part) of indebtedness of the taxpayer if—

(A) the discharge occurs in a title 11 case,

(B) the discharge occurs when the taxpayer is insolvent,

(C) the indebtedness discharged is qualified farm indebtedness, or

(D) in the case of a taxpayer other than a C corporation, the indebtedness discharged is qualified real property business indebtedness.

(2) Coordination of exclusions.

(A) Title 11 exclusion takes precedence. Subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge which occurs in a title 11 case,

(B) Insolvency exclusion takes precedence over qualified farm exclusion and qualified real property business exclusion. Subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge to the extent the taxpayer is insolvent,

(3) Insolvency exclusion limited to amount of insolvency. In the case of a discharge to which paragraph (1)(B) applies, the amount excluded under paragraph (1)(B) shall not exceed the amount by which the taxpayer is insolvent,

(b) Reduction of tax attributes.

(1) In general. The amount excluded from gross income under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall be applied to reduce the tax attributes of the taxpayer as provided in paragraph (2),

(2) Tax attributes affected; order of reduction. Except as provided in paragraph (5), the reduction referred to in paragraph (1) shall be made in the following tax attributes in the following order:

(A) NOL. Any net operating loss for the taxable year of the discharge, and any net operating loss carryover to such taxable year,

(B) General business credit. Any carryover to or from the taxable year of a discharge of an amount for purposes for determining the amount allowable as a credit under section 38 (relating to general business credit),

(C) Minimum tax credit. The amount of the minimum tax credit available under section 53(b) as of the beginning of the taxable year immediately following the taxable year of the discharge,

(D) Capital loss carryovers. Any net capital loss for the taxable year of the discharge, and any capital loss carryover to such taxable year under section 1212,

(E) Basis reduction.

(i) In general. The basis of the property of the taxpayer,

(ii) Cross reference. For provisions for making the reduction described in clause (i), see section 1017,

(F) Passive activity loss and credit carryovers. Any passive activity loss or credit carryover of the taxpayer under section 469(b) from the taxable year of the discharge,

(G) Foreign tax credit carryovers. Any carryover to or from the taxable year of the discharge for purposes of determining the amount of the credit allowable under section 27,

(3) Amount of reduction.

(A) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the reductions described in paragraph (2) shall be one dollar for each dollar excluded by subsection (a),

(B) Credit carryover reduction. The reductions described in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G) shall be 33 1/3 cents for each dollar excluded by subsection (a). The reduction described in subparagraph (F) in any passive activity credit carryover shall be 33 1/3 cents for each dollar excluded by subsection (a),

(4) Ordering rules.

(A) Reductions made after determination of tax for year. The reductions described in paragraph (2) shall be made after the determination of the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year of the discharge,

(B) Reductions under subparagraph (A) or (D) of paragraph (2). The reductions described in subparagraph (A) or (D) of paragraph (2) (as the case may be) shall be made first in the loss for the taxable year of the discharge and then in the carryovers to such taxable year in the order of the taxable years from which each such carryover arose,

(C) Reductions under subparagraphs (B) and (G) of paragraph (2). The reductions described in subparagraphs (B) and (G) of paragraph (2) shall be made in the order in which carryovers are taken into account under this chapter for the taxable year of the discharge,

(5) Election to apply reduction first against depreciable property.

(A) In general. The taxpayer may elect to apply any portion of the reduction referred to in paragraph (1) to the reduction under section 1017 of the basis of the depreciable property of the taxpayer,

(B) Limitation. The amount to which an election under subparagraph (A) applies shall not exceed the aggregate adjusted bases of the depreciable property held by the taxpayer as of the beginning of the taxable year following the taxable year in which the discharge occurs,

(C) Other tax attributes not reduced. Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any amount to which an election under this paragraph applies,

(c) Treatment of discharge of qualified real property business indebtedness.

(1) Basis reduction.

(A) In general. The amount excluded from gross income under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) shall be applied to reduce the basis of the depreciable real property of the taxpayer,

(B) Cross reference. For provisions making the reduction described in subparagraph (A), see section 1017,

(2) Limitations.

(A) Indebtedness in excess of value. The amount excluded under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) with respect to any qualified real property business indebtedness shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(i) the outstanding principal amount of such indebtedness (immediately before the discharge), over

(ii) the fair market value of the real property described in paragraph (3)(A) (as of such time), reduced by the outstanding principal amount of any other qualified real property business indebtedness secured by such property (as of such time),

(B) Overall limitation. The amount excluded under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) shall not exceed the aggregate adjusted bases of depreciable real property (determined after any reductions under subsections (b) and (g)) held by the taxpayer immediately before the discharge (other than depreciable real property acquired in contemplation of such discharge),

(3) Qualified real property business indebtedness. The term "qualified real property business indebtedness" means indebtedness which—

(A) was incurred or assumed by the taxpayer in connection with real property used in a trade or business and is secured by such real property,

(B) was incurred or assumed before January 1, 1993, or if incurred or assumed on or after such date, is qualified acquisition indebtedness, and

(C) with respect to which such taxpayer makes an election to have this paragraph apply.

Such term shall not include qualified farm indebtedness. Indebtedness under subparagraph (B) shall include indebtedness resulting from the refinancing of indebtedness under subparagraph (B) (or this sentence), but only to the extent it does not exceed the amount of the indebtedness being refinanced.

(4) Qualified acquisition indebtedness. For purposes of paragraph (3)(B), the term "qualified acquisition indebtedness" means, with respect to any real property described in paragraph (3)(A), indebtedness incurred or assumed to acquire, construct, reconstruct, or substantially improve such property,

(5) Regulations. The Secretary shall issue such regulations as are necessary to carry out this subsection, including regulations preventing the abuse of this subsection through cross-collateralization or other means,

(d) Meaning of terms; special rules relating to certain provisions.

(1) Indebtedness of taxpayer. For purposes of this section, the term "indebtedness of the taxpayer" means any indebtedness—

(A) for which the taxpayer is liable, or

(B) subject to which the taxpayer holds property.

(2) Title 11 case. For purposes of this section, the term "title 11 case" means a case under title 11 of the United States Code (relating to bankruptcy), but only if the taxpayer is under the jurisdiction of the court in such case and the discharge of indebtedness is granted by the court or is pursuant to a plan approved by the court.

(3) Insolvent. For purposes of this section, the term "insolvent" means the excess of liabilities over the fair market value of assets. With respect to any discharge, whether or not the taxpayer is insolvent, and the amount by which the taxpayer is insolvent, shall be determined on the basis of the taxpayer's assets and liabilities immediately before the discharge.

((4) Repealed. Pub. L. 99-514, title VIII, § 822(b)(3)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373)

(5) Depreciable property. The term "depreciable property" has the same meaning as when used in section 1017.

(6) Certain provisions to be applied at partner level. In the case of a partnership, subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g) shall be applied at the partner level.

(7) Special rules for S corporation.

(A) Certain provisions to be applied at corporate level. In the case of an S corporation, subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g) shall be applied at the corporate level, including by not taking into account under section 1366(a) any amount excluded under subsection (a) of this section.

(B) Reduction in carryover of disallowed losses and deductions. In the case of an S corporation, for purposes of subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2), any loss or deduction which is disallowed for the taxable year of the discharge under section 1366(d)(1) shall be treated as a net operating loss for such taxable year. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any discharge to the extent that subsection (a)(1)(D) applies to such discharge.

(C) Coordination with basis adjustments under section 1367(b)(2). For purposes of subsection (e)(6), a shareholder's adjusted basis in indebtedness of an S corporation shall be determined without regard to any adjustments made under section 1367(b)(2).

(8) Reductions of tax attributes in title 11 cases of individuals to be made by estate. In any case under chapter 7 or 11 of title 11 of the United States Code to which section 1398 applies, for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (5) of subsection (b) the estate (and not the individual) shall be treated as the taxpayer. The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of applying section 1017 to property transferred by the estate to the individual.

(9) Time for making election, etc.

(A) Time. An election under paragraph (5) of subsection (b) or under paragraph (3)(C) of subsection (c) shall be made on the taxpayer's return for the taxable year in which the discharge occurs or at such other time as may be permitted in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(B) Revocation only with consent. An election referred to in subparagraph (A), once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary.

(C) Manner. An election referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be made in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.

(10) Cross reference. For provision that no reduction is to be made in the basis of exempt property of an individual debtor, see section 1017(c)(1).

(e) General rules for discharge of indebtedness (including discharges not in title 11 cases or insolvency). For purposes of this title—

(1) No other insolvency exception. Except as otherwise provided in this section, there shall be no insolvency exception from the general rule that gross income includes income from the discharge of indebtedness.

(2) Income not realized to extent of lost deductions. No income shall be realized from the discharge of indebtedness to the extent that payment of the liability would have given rise to a deduction.

(3) Adjustments for unamortized premium and discount. The amount taken into account with respect to any discharge shall be properly adjusted for unamortized premium and unamortized discount with respect to the indebtedness discharged.

(4) Acquisition of indebtedness by person related to debtor.

(A) Treated as acquisition by debtor. For purposes of determining income of the debtor from discharge of indebtedness, to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the acquisition of outstanding indebtedness by a person bearing a relationship to the debtor specified in section 267(b) or 707(b)(1) from a person who does not bear such a relationship to the debtor shall be treated as the acquisition of such indebtedness by the debtor. Such regulations shall provide for such adjustments in the treatment of any subsequent transactions involving the indebtedness as may be appropriate by reason of the application of the preceding sentence.

(B) Members of family. For purposes of this paragraph, sections 267(b) and 707(b)(1) shall be applied as if section 267(c)(4) provided that the family of an individual consists of the individual's spouse, the individual's children, grandchildren, and parents, and any spouse of the individual's children or grandchildren.

(C) Entities under common control treated as related. For purposes of this paragraph, two entities which are treated as a single employer under subsection (b) or (c) of section 414 shall be treated as bearing a relationship to each other which is described in section 267(b).

(5) Purchase-money debt reduction for solvent debtor treated as price reduction. If—

(A) the debt of a purchaser of property to the seller of such property which arose out of the purchase of such property is reduced,

(B) such reduction does not occur—

(i) in a , or

(ii) when the purchaser is insolvent, and

(C) but for this paragraph, such reduction would be treated as income to the purchaser from the discharge of indebtedness, then such reduction shall be treated as a purchase price adjustment.

(6) Indebtedness contributed to capital. Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of determining income of the debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if a debtor corporation acquires its indebtedness from a shareholder as a contribution to capital—

(A) section 118 shall not apply, but

(B) such corporation shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the shareholder's adjusted basis in the indebtedness.

(7) Recapture of gain on subsequent sale of stock.

(A) In general. If a creditor acquires stock of a debtor corporation in satisfaction of such corporation's indebtedness, for purposes of section 1245—

(i) such stock (and any other property the basis of which is determined in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such stock) shall be treated as section 1245 property,

(ii) the aggregate amount allowed to the creditor— (I) as deductions under subsection (a) or (b) of section 166 (by reason of the worthlessness or partial worthlessness of the indebtedness), or (II) as an ordinary loss on the exchange, shall be treated as an amount allowed as a deduction for depreciation, and

(iii) an exchange of such stock qualifying under section 354(a), 355(a), or 356(a) shall be treated as an exchange to which section 1245(b)(3) applies.

The amount determined under clause (ii) shall be reduced by the amount (if any) included in the creditor's gross income on the exchange.

(B) Special rule for cash basis taxpayers. In the case of any creditor who computes his taxable income under the cash receipts and disbursements method, proper adjustment shall be made in the amount taken into account under clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) for any amount which was not included in the creditor's gross income but which would have been included in such gross income if such indebtedness had been satisfied in full.

(C) Stock of parent corporation. For purposes of this paragraph, stock of a corporation in control (within the meaning of section 368(c)) of the debtor corporation shall be treated as stock of the debtor corporation.

(D) Treatment of successor corporation. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "debtor corporation" includes a successor corporation.

(E) Partnership rule. Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of the foregoing subparagraphs of this paragraph shall apply with respect to the indebtedness of a partnership.

(8) Indebtedness satisfied by corporate stock or partnership interest. For purposes of determining income of a debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if—

(A) a debtor corporation transfers stock, or

(B) a debtor partnership transfers a capital or profits interest in such partnership,

to a creditor in satisfaction of its recourse or nonrecourse indebtedness, such corporation or partnership shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the fair market value of the stock or interest. In the case of any partnership, any discharge of indebtedness income recognized under this paragraph shall be included in the distributive shares of taxpayers which were the partners in the partnership immediately before such discharge.

(9) Discharge of indebtedness income not taken into account in determining whether entity meets REIT qualifications. Any amount included in gross income by reason of the discharge of indebtedness shall not be taken into account for purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 856(c).

(10) Indebtedness satisfied by issuance of debt instrument.

(A) In general. For purposes of determining income of a debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if a debtor issues a debt instrument in satisfaction of indebtedness, such debtor shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the issue price of such debt instrument.

(B) Issue price. For purposes of subparagraph (A), the issue price of any debt instrument shall be determined under sections 1273 and 1274.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, section 1273(b)(4) shall be applied by reducing the stated redemption price of any instrument by the portion of such stated redemption price which is treated as interest for purposes of this chapter.

(f) Student loans.

(1) In general. In the case of an individual, gross income does not include any amount which (but for this subsection) would be includible in gross income by reason of the discharge (in whole or in part) of any student loan if such discharge was pursuant to a provision of such loan under which all or part of the indebtedness of the individual would be discharged if the individual worked for a certain period of time in certain professions for any of a broad class of employers.

(2) Student loan. For purposes of this subsection, the term "student loan" means any loan to an individual to assist the individual in attending an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) made by—

(A) the United States, or an instrumentality or agency thereof,

(B) a State, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, or any political subdivision thereof,

(C) a public benefit corporation—

(i) which is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3),

(ii) which has assumed control over a State, county, or municipal hospital, and

(iii) whose employees have been deemed to be public employees under State law, or

(D) any educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) if such loan is made—

(i) pursuant to an agreement with any entity described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) under which the funds from which the loan was made were provided to such educational organization, or

(ii) pursuant to a program of such educational organization which is designed to encourage its students to serve in occupations with unmet needs or in areas with unmet needs and under which the services provided by the students (or former students) are for or under the direction of a governmental unit or an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and exempt from tax under section 501(a).

The term "student loan" includes any loan made by an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) or by an organization exempt from tax under section 501(a) to refinance a loan to an individual to assist the individual in attending any such educational organization but only if the refinancing loan is pursuant to a program of the refinancing organization which is designed as described in subparagraph (D)(ii).

(3) Exception for discharges on account of services performed for certain lenders. Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the discharge of a loan made by an organization described in paragraph (2)(D) if the discharge is on account of services performed for either such organization.

(4) Payments under National Health Service Corps loan repayment program and certain State loan repayment programs. In the case of an individual, gross income shall not include any amount received under section 338B(g) of the Public Health Service Act or under a State program described in section 338I of such Act.

(g) Special rules for discharge of qualified farm indebtedness.

(1) Discharge must be by qualified person.

(A) In general. Subparagraph (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall apply only if the discharge is by a qualified person.

(B) Qualified person. For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "qualified person" has the meaning given to such term by section 49(a)(1)(D)(iv); except that such term shall include any Federal, State, or local government or agency or instrumentality thereof.

(2) Qualified farm indebtedness. For purposes of this section, indebtedness of a taxpayer shall be treated as qualified farm indebtedness if—

(A) such indebtedness was incurred directly in connection with the operation by the taxpayer of the trade or business of farming, and

(B) 50 percent or more of the aggregate gross receipts of the taxpayer for the 3 taxable years preceding the taxable year in which the discharge of such indebtedness occurs is attributable to the trade or business of farming.

(3) Amount excluded cannot exceed sum of tax attributes and business and investment assets.

(A) In general. The amount excluded under subparagraph (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall not exceed the sum of—

(i) the adjusted tax attributes of the taxpayer, and

(ii) the aggregate adjusted bases of qualified property held by the taxpayer as of the beginning of the taxable year following the taxable year in which the discharge occurs.

(B) Adjusted tax attributes. For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "adjusted tax attributes" means the sum of the tax attributes described in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), (F), and (G) of subsection (b)(2) determined by taking into account $3 for each $1 of the attributes described in subparagraphs (B),, (C), and (G) of subsection (b)(2) and the attribute described in subparagraph (F) of subsection (b)(2) to the extent attributable to any passive activity credit carryover.

(C) Qualified property. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualified property" means any property which is used or is held for use in a trade or business or for the production of income.

(D) Coordination with insolvency exclusion. For purposes of this paragraph, the adjusted basis of any qualified property and the amount of the adjusted tax attributes shall be determined after any reduction under subsection (b) by reason of amounts excluded from gross income under subsection (a)(1)(B).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 32; June 29, 1956, ch. 463, § 5, 70 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 88-496, § 1(a), June 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 164; Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A), 1951(b)(2)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, 1836; Pub. L. 96-589, § 2(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 97-354, § 3(e), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1689; Pub. L. 97-448, title I, § 102(h)(1), title III, § 304(d), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2372, 2398; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title I, § 59(a), (b)(1), title IV, § 474(r)(5), title VII, § 721(b)(2), title X, § 1076(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 576, 839, 966, 1053; Pub. L. 99-514, title I, § 104(b)(2), title II, § 231(d)(3)(D), title IV, § 405(a), title VI, § 621(e)(1), title VIII, § 805(c)(2)-(4), 822(a), (b)(1)-(3), title XI, § 1171(b)(4), title XVIII, § 1847(b)(7), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2105, 2179, 2224, 2266, 2362, 2373, 2513, 2856; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, § 1004(a)(1)-(4), (6), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3385, 3387; Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, § 11325(a)(1), (b), 11813(b)(6), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-466, 1388-551; Pub. L. 103-66, title XIII, § 13150(a)-(c)(5), 13226(a)(1), (2)(B), (b)(1)-(3), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 446-448, 487, 488; Pub. L. 104-188, title I, § 1703(n)(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1877; Pub. L. 105-34, title II, § 225(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 105-206, title VI, § 6004(f), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 795; Pub. L. 107-147, Title IV, Subtitle A, § 402(a), March 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 40; Pub. L. 108-357, Title III, Subtitle B, § 320(a), Title VIII, Subtitle D, § 396(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1473, 1648.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. §108)


§ 221. Interest on education loans

(a) Allowance of deduction. In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a deduction for the taxable year an amount equal to the interest paid by the taxpayer during the taxable year on any qualified education loan.

(b) and (c) (omitted)

(d) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified education loan. The term “qualified education loan” means any indebtedness incurred by the taxpayer solely to pay qualified higher education expenses

(A) which are incurred on behalf of the taxpayer, the taxpayer’s spouse, or any dependent of the taxpayer as of the time the indebtedness was incurred,

(B) which are paid or incurred within a reasonable period of time before or after the indebtedness is incurred, and

(C) which are attributable to education furnished during a period during which the recipient was an eligible student.

Such term includes indebtedness used to refinance indebtedness which qualifies as a qualified education loan. The term “qualified education loan” shall not include any indebtedness owed to a person who is related (within the meaning of section 267 (b) or 707 (b)(1)) to the taxpayer or to any person by reason of a loan under any qualified employer plan (as defined in section 72 (p)(4)) or under any contract referred to in section 72 (p)(5).

(2) Qualified higher education expenses. The term “qualified higher education expenses” means the cost of attendance (as defined in section 472 of the Higher Education Act of 1965, 20 U.S.C. 1087ll, as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act) at an eligible educational institution, reduced by the sum of—

(A) the amount excluded from gross income under section 127, 135, 529, or 530 by reason of such expenses, and

(B) the amount of any scholarship, allowance, or payment described in section 25A (g)(2).

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “eligible educational institution” has the same meaning given such term by section 25A (f)(2), except that such term shall also include an institution conducting an internship or residency program leading to a degree or certificate awarded by an institution of higher education, a hospital, or a health care facility which offers postgraduate training.

(3) Eligible student. The term “eligible student” has the meaning given such term by section 25A (b)(3).

(4) Dependent. The term "dependent" has the meaning given such term by section 152 (determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof).

(e) and (f) (omitted)

(Added Pub. L. 105–34, title II, § 202(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 806; amended Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, § 6004(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 792; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, § 4003(a)(2)(A), (3), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–908; amended Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §§ 402(b)(2)(B), 412 (a)(1), (b)(1), (2), 431 (c)(2), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 62–64, 68; Pub. L. 108-311, Title II, § 207(20), Title IV, § 408(b)(5), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1178, 1192; Pub. L. 108-357, Title I, § 102(d)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1428.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 221)


§ 529. Qualified tuition programs

(a) General rule. A qualified tuition program shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, such program shall be subject to the taxes imposed by section 511 (relating to imposition of tax on unrelated business income of charitable organizations).

(b) Qualified tuition program. For purposes of this section—

(1) In general. The term “qualified tuition program” means a program established and maintained by a State or agency or instrumentality thereof or by 1 or more eligible educational institutions—

(A) under which a person—

(i) may purchase tuition credits or certificates on behalf of a designated beneficiary which entitle the beneficiary to the waiver or payment of qualified higher education expenses of the beneficiary, or

(ii) in the case of a program established and maintained by a State or agency or instrumentality thereof, may make contributions to an account which is established for the purpose of meeting the qualified higher education expenses of the designated beneficiary of the account, and

(B) which meets the other requirements of this subsection.

 Except to the extent provided in regulations, a program established and maintained by 1 or more eligible educational institutions shall not be treated as a qualified tuition program unless such program provides that amounts are held in a qualified trust and such program has received a ruling or determination that such program meets the applicable requirements for a qualified tuition program. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “qualified trust” means a trust which is created or organized in the United States for the exclusive benefit of designated beneficiaries and with respect to which the requirements of paragraphs (2) and (5) of section 408 (a) are met.

(2) Cash contributions. A program shall not be treated as a qualified tuition program unless it provides that purchases or contributions may only be made in cash.

(3) Separate accounting. A program shall not be treated as a qualified tuition program unless it provides separate accounting for each designated beneficiary.

(4) No investment direction. A program shall not be treated as a qualified tuition program unless it provides that any contributor to, or designated beneficiary under, such program may not directly or indirectly direct the investment of any contributions to the program (or any earnings thereon).

(5) No pledging of interest as security. A program shall not be treated as a qualified tuition program if it allows any interest in the program or any portion thereof to be used as security for a loan.

(6) Prohibition on excess contributions. A program shall not be treated as a qualified tuition program unless it provides adequate safeguards to prevent contributions on behalf of a designated beneficiary in excess of those necessary to provide for the qualified higher education expenses of the beneficiary.

(c) through (e) (omitted)

(Added Pub. L. 104–188, title I, § 1806(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1895; amended Pub. L. 105–34, title II, § 211(a), (b), (d), (e)(2)(A), title XVI, § 1601(h)(1)(A), (B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 810, 812, 1092; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, § 6004(c)(2), (3), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 793; Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(7) [title III, § 319(5)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–646; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, § 402(a)(1)–(3), (4)(A), (C), (D), (b)(1), (c)–(g), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 60–63; Pub. L. 107–22, § 1(b)(3)(C), July 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, § 417(11), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 56; Pub. L. 108-311, Title II, § 207(21), Title IV, § 406(a), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1178, 1189.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 529)


§ 530. Coverdell education savings accounts

(a) General rule. A Coverdell education savings account shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the Coverdell education savings account shall be subject to the taxes imposed by section 511 (relating to imposition of tax on unrelated business income of charitable organizations).

(b) Definitions and special rules. For purposes of this section—

(1) Coverdell education savings account. The term “Coverdell education savings account” means a trust created or organized in the United States exclusively for the purpose of paying the qualified education expenses of an individual who is the designated beneficiary of the trust (and designated as a Coverdell education savings account at the time created or organized), but only if the written governing instrument creating the trust meets the following requirements:

(A) No contribution will be accepted—

(i) unless it is in cash,

(ii) after the date on which such beneficiary attains age 18, or

(iii) except in the case of rollover contributions, if such contribution would result in aggregate contributions for the taxable year exceeding $2,000.

(B) The trustee is a bank (as defined in section 408 (n)) or another person who demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the manner in which that person will administer the trust will be consistent with the requirements of this section or who has so demonstrated with respect to any individual retirement plan.

(C) No part of the trust assets will be invested in life insurance contracts.

(D) The assets of the trust shall not be commingled with other property except in a common trust fund or common investment fund.

(E) Except as provided in subsection (d)(7), any balance to the credit of the designated beneficiary on the date on which the beneficiary attains age 30 shall be distributed within 30 days after such date to the beneficiary or, if the beneficiary dies before attaining age 30, shall be distributed within 30 days after the date of death of such beneficiary.

The age limitations in subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (E), and paragraphs (5) and (6) of subsection (d), shall not apply to any designated beneficiary with special needs (as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary).

(2) Qualified education expenses

(A) In general. The term “qualified education expenses” means—

(i) qualified higher education expenses (as defined in section 529 (e)(3)), and

(ii) qualified elementary and secondary education expenses (as defined in paragraph (4)).

(B) Qualified tuition programs. Such term shall include any contribution to a qualified tuition program (as defined in section 529 (b)) on behalf of the designated beneficiary (as defined in section 529 (e)(1)); but there shall be no increase in the investment in the contract for purposes of applying section 72 by reason of any portion of such contribution which is not includible in gross income by reason of subsection (d)(2).

(3) Eligible educational institution. The term “eligible educational institution” has the meaning given such term by section 529 (e)(5).

(4) Qualified elementary and secondary education expenses

(A) In general. The term “qualified elementary and secondary education expenses” means—

(i) expenses for tuition, fees, academic tutoring, special needs services in the case of a special needs beneficiary, books, supplies, and other equipment which are incurred in connection with the enrollment or attendance of the designated beneficiary of the trust as an elementary or secondary school student at a public, private, or religious school,

(ii) expenses for room and board, uniforms, transportation, and supplementary items and services (including extended day programs) which are required or provided by a public, private, or religious school in connection with such enrollment or attendance, and

(iii) expenses for the purchase of any computer technology or equipment (as defined in section 170 (e)(6)(F)(i)) or Internet access and related services, if such technology, equipment, or services are to be used by the beneficiary and the beneficiary’s family during any of the years the beneficiary is in school.

Clause (iii) shall not include expenses for computer software designed for sports, games, or hobbies unless the software is predominantly educational in nature.

(B) School. The term “school” means any school which provides elementary education or secondary education (kindergarten through grade 12), as determined under State law.

(5) Time when contributions deemed made. An individual shall be deemed to have made a contribution to an education individual retirement account on the last day of the preceding taxable year if the contribution is made on account of such taxable year and is made not later than the time prescribed by law for filing the return for such taxable year (not including extensions thereof).

(c) through (h) (omitted)

(Added Pub. L. 105–34, title II, § 213(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 813; amended Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, § 6004(d)(1)–(3)(A), (5)–(8), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 793, 794; Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(7) [title III, § 319(6)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–646; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §§ 401(a)(1), (b)–(g)(1), (2)(C), 402(a)(4)(A), (C), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 57–61; Pub. L. 107–22, § 1(a)(1)–(5), July 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 196; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, § 411(f), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 46; P.L. 108-121, Title I, § 107(a), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1339; P.L. 108-311, Title IV, §§ 404(a), 406(b), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1188, 1189.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 530)


§ 1017. Discharge of indebtedness

(a) General rule. If—

(1) an amount is excluded from gross income under subsection (a) of section 108 (relating to discharge of indebtedness), and

(2) under subsection (b)(2)(E), (b)(5), or (c)(1) of section 108, any portion of such amount is to be applied to reduce basis, then such portion shall be applied in reduction of the basis of any property held by the taxpayer at the beginning of the taxable year following the taxable year in which the discharge occurs.

(b) Amount and properties determined under regulations.

(1) In general. The amount of reduction to be applied under subsection (a) (not in excess of the portion referred to in subsection (a)), and the particular properties the bases of which are to be reduced, shall be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(2) Limitation in  or insolvency. In the case of a discharge to which subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 108(a)(1) applies, the reduction in basis under subsection (a) of this section shall not exceed the excess of— (A) the aggregate of the bases of the property held by the taxpayer immediately after the discharge, over (B) the aggregate of the liabilities of the taxpayer immediately after the discharge. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any reduction in basis by reason of an election under section 108(b)(5).

(3) Certain reductions may only be made in the basis of depreciable property.

(A) In general. Any amount which under subsection (b)(5) or (c)(1) of section 108 is to be applied to reduce basis shall be applied only to reduce the basis of depreciable property held by the taxpayer.

(B) Depreciable property. For purposes of this section, the term "depreciable property" means any property of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation, but only if a basis reduction under subsection (a) will reduce the amount of depreciation or amortization which otherwise would be allowable for the period immediately following such reduction.

(C) Special rule for partnership interests. For purposes of this section, any interest of a partner in a partnership shall be treated as depreciable property to the extent of such partner's proportionate interest in the depreciable property held by such partnership. The preceding sentence shall apply only if there is a corresponding reduction in the partnership's basis in depreciable property with respect to such partner.

(D) Special rule in case of affiliated group. For purposes of this section, if—

(i) a corporation holds stock in another corporation (hereinafter in this subparagraph referred to as the "subsidiary"), and

(ii) such corporations are members of the same affiliated group which file a consolidated return under section 1501 for the taxable year in which the discharge occurs,

then such stock shall be treated as depreciable property to the extent that such subsidiary consents to a corresponding reduction in the basis of its depreciable property.

(E) Election to treat certain inventory as depreciable property.

(i) In general. At the election of the taxpayer, for purposes of this section, the term "depreciable property" includes any real property which is described in section 1221(a)(1).

(ii) Election. An election under clause (i) shall be made on the taxpayer's return for the taxable year in which the discharge occurs or at such other time as may be permitted in regulations prescribed by the Secretary. Such an election, once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary.

(F) Special rules for qualified real property business indebtedness. In the case of any amount which under section 108(c)(1) is to be applied to reduce basis—

(i) depreciable property shall only include depreciable real property for purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (C),

(ii) subparagraph (E) shall not apply, and

(iii) in the case of property taken into account under section 108(c)(2)(B), the reduction with respect to such property shall be made as of the time immediately before disposition if earlier than the time under subsection (a).

(4) Special rules for qualified farm indebtedness.

(A) In general. Any amount which under subsection (b)(2)(E) of section 108 is to be applied to reduce basis and which is attributable to an amount excluded under subsection (a)(1)(C) of section 108

(i) shall be applied only to reduce the basis of qualified property held by the taxpayer, and

(ii) shall be applied to reduce the basis of qualified property in the following order:

(I) First the basis of qualified property which is depreciable property.

(II) Second the basis of qualified property which is land used or held for use in the trade or business of farming.

(III) Then the basis of other qualified property.

(B) Qualified property. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualified property" has the meaning given to such term by section 108(g)(3)(C).

(C) Certain rules made applicable. Rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (C), (D), and (E) of paragraph (3) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph and section 108(g).

(c) Special rules.

(1) Reduction not to be made in exempt property. In the case of an amount excluded from gross income under section 108(a)(1)(A), no reduction in basis shall be made under this section in the basis of property which the debtor treats as exempt property under section 522 of title 11 of the United States Code.

(2) Reductions in basis not treated as dispositions. For purposes of this title, a reduction in basis under this section shall not be treated as a disposition.

(d) Recapture of reductions.

(1) In general. For purposes of sections 1245 and 1250—

(A) any property the basis of which is reduced under this section and which is neither section 1245 property nor section 1250 property shall be treated as section 1245 property, and

(B) any reduction under this section shall be treated as a deduction allowed for depreciation.

(2) Special rule for section 1250. For purposes of section 1250(b), the determination of what would have been the depreciation adjustments under the straight line method shall be made as if there had been no reduction under this section.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 301; Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A), 1951(c)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, 1840; Pub. L. 96-589, § 2(b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3394; Pub. L. 99-514, title IV, § 405(b), title VIII, § 822(b)(4), (5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2224, 2373; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, § 1004(a)(5), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3386; Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, § 11704(a)(12), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-518; Pub. L. 103-66, title XIII, § 13150(c)(6)-(8), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 448; Pub. L. 104-188, title I, § 1703(n)(5), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1877; Pub. L. 105-206, title VI, § 6023(11), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 825; Pub. L. 106-170, title V, § 532(c)(2)(S), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1931.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. §1017)


§ 1398. Rules relating to individuals' title 11 cases

(a) Cases to which section applies. Except as provided in subsection (b), this section shall apply to any case under chapter 7 (relating to liquidations) or chapter 11 (relating to reorganizations) of title 11 of the United States Code in which the debtor is an individual.

(b) Exceptions where case is dismissed, etc.

(1) Section does not apply where case is dismissed. This section shall not apply if the case under chapter 7 or 11 of title 11 of the United States Code is dismissed.

(2) Section does not apply at partnership level. For purposes of subsection (a), a partnership shall not be treated as an individual, but the interest in a partnership of a debtor who is an individual shall be taken into account under this section in the same manner as any other interest of the debtor.

(c) Computation and payment of tax; basic standard deduction.

(1) Computation and payment of tax. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the taxable income of the estate shall be computed in the same manner as for an individual. The tax shall be computed on such taxable income and shall be paid by the trustee.

(2) Tax rates. The tax on the taxable income of the estate shall be determined under subsection (d) of section 1.

(3) Basic standard deduction. In the case of an estate which does not itemize deductions, the basic standard deduction for the estate for the taxable year shall be the same as for a married individual filing a separate return for such year.

(d) Taxable year of debtors.

(1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (2), the taxable year of the debtor shall be determined without regard to the case under title 11 of the United States Code to which this section applies.

(2) Election to terminate debtor's year when case commences.

(A) In general. Notwithstanding section 442, the debtor may (without the approval of the Secretary) elect to treat the debtor's taxable year which includes the commencement date as 2 taxable years—

(i) the first of which ends on the day before the commencement date, and

(ii) the second of which begins on the commencement date.

(B) Spouse may join in election. In the case of a married individual (within the meaning of section 7703), the spouse may elect to have the debtor's election under subparagraph (A) also apply to the spouse, but only if the debtor and the spouse file a joint return for the taxable year referred to in subparagraph (A)(i).

(C) No election where debtor has no assets. No election may be made under subparagraph (A) by a debtor who has no assets other than property which the debtor may treat as exempt property under section 522 of title 11 of the United States Code.

(D) Time for making election. An election under subparagraph (A) or (B) may be made only on or before the due date for filing the return for the taxable year referred to in subparagraph (A)(i). Any such election, once made, shall be irrevocable.

(E) Returns. A return shall be made for each of the taxable years specified in subparagraph (A).

(F) Annualization. For purposes of subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 443, a return filed for either of the taxable years referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be treated as a return made under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of section 443.

(3) Commencement date defined. For purposes of this subsection, the term "commencement date" means the day on which the case under title 11 of the United States Code to which this section applies commences.

(e) Treatment of income, deductions, and credits.

(1) Estate's share of debtor's income. The gross income of the estate for each taxable year shall include the gross income of the debtor to which the estate is entitled under title 11 of the United States Code. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any amount received or accrued by the debtor before the commencement date (as defined in subsection (d)(3)).

(2) Debtor's share of debtor's income. The gross income of the debtor for any taxable year shall not include any item to the extent that such item is included in the gross income of the estate by reason of paragraph (1).

(3) Rule for making determinations with respect to deductions, credits, and employment taxes. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the determination of whether or not any amount paid or incurred by the estate—

(A) is allowable as a deduction or credit under this chapter, or

(B) is wages for purposes of subtitle C, shall be made as if the amount were paid or incurred by the debtor and as if the debtor were still engaged in the trades and businesses, and in the activities, the debtor was engaged in before the commencement of the case.

(f) Treatment of transfers between debtor and estate.

(1) Transfer to estate not treated as disposition. A transfer (other than by sale or exchange) of an asset from the debtor to the estate shall not be treated as a disposition for purposes of any provision of this title assigning tax consequences to a disposition, and the estate shall be treated as the debtor would be treated with respect to such asset.

(2) Transfer from estate to debtor not treated as disposition. In the case of a termination of the estate, a transfer (other than by sale or exchange) of an asset from the estate to the debtor shall not be treated as a disposition for purposes of any provision of this title assigning tax consequences to a disposition, and the debtor shall be treated as the estate would be treated with respect to such asset.

(g) Estate succeeds to tax attributes of debtor. The estate shall succeed to and take into account the following items (determined as of the first day of the debtor's taxable year in which the case commences) of the debtor—

(1) Net operating loss carryovers. The net operating loss carryovers determined under section 172.

(2) Charitable contributions carryovers. The carryover of excess charitable contributions determined under section 170(d)(1).

(3) Recovery of tax benefit items. Any amount to which section 111 (relating to recovery of tax benefit items) applies.

(4) Credit carryovers, etc. The carryovers of any credit, and all other items which, but for the commencement of the case, would be required to be taken into account by the debtor with respect to any credit.

(5) Capital loss carryovers. The capital loss carryover determined under section 1212.

(6) Basis, holding period, and character of assets. In the case of any asset acquired (other than by sale or exchange) by the estate from the debtor, the basis, holding period, and character it had in the hands of the debtor.

(7) Method of accounting. The method of accounting used by the debtor.

(8) Other attributes. Other tax attributes of the debtor, to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary as necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section.

(h) Administration, liquidation, and reorganization expenses; carryovers and carrybacks of certain excess expenses.

(1) Administration, liquidation, and reorganization expenses. Any administrative expense allowed under section 503 of title 11 of the United States Code, and any fee or charge assessed against the estate under chapter 123 of title 28 of the United States Code, to the extent not disallowed under any other provision of this title, shall be allowed as a deduction.

(2) Carryback and carryover of excess administrative costs, etc., to estate taxable years.

(A) Deduction allowed. There shall be allowed as a deduction for the taxable year an amount equal to the aggregate of (i) the administrative expense carryovers to such year, plus (ii) the administrative expense carrybacks to such year.

(B) Administrative expense loss, etc. If a net operating loss would be created or increased for any estate taxable year if section 172(c) were applied without the modification contained in paragraph (4) of section 172(d), then the amount of the net operating loss so created (or the amount of the increase in the net operating loss) shall be an administrative expense loss for such taxable year which shall be an administrative expense carryback to each of the 3 preceding taxable years and an administrative expense carryover to each of the 7 succeeding taxable years.

(C) Determination of amount carried to each taxable year. The portion of any administrative expense loss which may be carried to any other taxable year shall be determined under section 172(b)(2), except that for each taxable year the computation under section 172(b)(2) with respect to the net operating loss shall be made before the computation under this paragraph.

(D) Administrative expense deductions allowed only to estate. The deductions allowable under this chapter solely by reason of paragraph (1), and the deduction provided by subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, shall be allowable only to the estate.

(i) Debtor succeeds to tax attributes of estate. In the case of a termination of an estate, the debtor shall succeed to and take into account the items referred to in paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6) of subsection (g) in a manner similar to that provided in such paragraphs (but taking into account that the transfer is from the estate to the debtor instead of from the debtor to the estate). In addition, the debtor shall succeed to and take into account the other tax attributes of the estate, to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary as necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section.

(j) Other special rules.

(1) Change of accounting period without approval. Notwithstanding section 442, the estate may change its annual accounting period one time without the approval of the Secretary.

(2) Treatment of certain carrybacks.

(A) Carrybacks from estate. If any carryback year of the estate is a taxable year before the estate's first taxable year, the carryback to such carryback year shall be taken into account for the debtor's taxable year corresponding to the carryback year.

(B) Carrybacks from debtor's activities. The debtor may not carry back to a taxable year before the debtor's taxable year in which the case commences any carryback from a taxable year ending after the case commences.

(C) Carryback and carryback year defined. For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Carryback. The term "carryback" means a net operating loss carryback under section 172 or a carryback of any credit provided by part IV of subchapter A.

(ii) Carryback year. The term "carryback year" means the taxable year to which a carryback is carried.

(Added Pub. L. 96-589, § 3(a)(1), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3397; amended Pub. L. 99-514, title I, § 104(b)(14), title XIII, § 1301(j)(8), title XVIII, § 1812(a)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2105, 2658, 2833.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. §1398)


§ 1399. No separate taxable entities for partnerships, corporations, etc.

Except in any case to which section 1398 applies, no separate taxable entity shall result from the commencement of a case under title 11 of the United States Code.

(Added Pub. L. 96-589, § 3(a)(1), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3400.)


§ 6012. Persons required to make returns of income.

(a) General rule. Returns with respect to income taxes under subtitle A shall be made by the following:

(1)(A) Every individual having for the taxable year gross income which equals or exceeds the exemption amount, except that a return shall not be required of an individual—

(i) who is not married (determined by applying section 7703), is not a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)), is not a head of a household (as defined in section 2(b)), and for the taxable year has gross income of less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction applicable to such an individual,

(ii) who is a head of a household (as so defined) and for the taxable year has gross income of less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction applicable to such an individual,

(iii) who is a surviving spouse (as so defined) and for the taxable year has gross income of less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction applicable to such an individual, or

(iv) who is entitled to make a joint return and whose gross income, when combined with the gross income of his spouse, is, for the taxable year, less than the sum of twice the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction applicable to a joint return, but only if such individual and his spouse, at the close of the taxable year, had the same household as their home.

Clause (iv) shall not apply if for the taxable year such spouse makes a separate return or any other taxpayer is entitled to an exemption for such spouse under section 151(c).

(B) The amount specified in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) shall be increased by the amount of 1 additional standard deduction (within the meaning of section 63(c)(3)) in the case of an individual entitled to such deduction by reason of section 63(f)(1)(A) (relating to individuals age 65 or more), and the amount specified in clause (iv) of subparagraph (A) shall be increased by the amount of the additional standard deduction for each additional standard deduction to which the individual or his spouse is entitled by reason of section 63(f)(1).

(C) The exception under subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any individual—

(i) who is described in section 63(c)(5) and who has—

(I) income (other than earned income) in excess of the sum of the amount in effect under section 63(c)(5)(A) plus the additional standard deduction (if any) to which the individual is entitled, or

(II) total gross income in excess of the standard deduction, or

(ii) for whom the standard deduction is zero under section 63(c)(6).

(D) For purposes of this subsection—

(i) The terms "standard deduction", "basic standard deduction" and "additional standard deduction" have the respective meanings given such terms by section 63(c).

(ii) The term "exemption amount" has the meaning given such term by section 151(d). In the case of an individual described in section 151(d)(2), the exemption amount shall be zero.

(2) Every corporation subject to taxation under subtitle A;

(3) Every estate the gross income of which for the taxable year is $600 or more;

(4) Every trust having for the taxable year any taxable income, or having gross income of $600 or over, regardless of the amount of taxable income;

(5) Every estate or trust of which any beneficiary is a nonresident alien;

(6) Every political organization (within the meaning of section 527(e)(1)), and every fund treated under section 527(g) as if it constituted a political organization, which has political organization taxable income (within the meaning of section 527(c)(1)) for the taxable year; and

(7) Every homeowners association (within the meaning of section 528(c)(1)) which has homeowners association taxable income (within the meaning of section 528(d)) for the taxable year.

(8) Every individual who receives payments during the calendar year in which the taxable year begins under section 3507 (relating to advance payment of earned income credit).

(9) Every estate of an individual under chapter 7 or 11 of title 11 of the United States Code (relating to bankruptcy) the gross income of which for the taxable year is not less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction under section 63(c)(2)(D).

except that subject to such conditions, limitations, and exceptions and under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary, nonresident alien individuals subject to the tax imposed by section 871 and foreign corporations subject to the tax imposed by section 881 may be exempted from the requirement of making returns under this section.

(b) Returns made by fiduciaries and receivers.

(1) Returns of decedents. If an individual is deceased, the return of such individual required under subsection (a) shall be made by his executor, administrator, or other person charged with the property of such decedent.

(2) Persons under a disability. If an individual is unable to make a return required under subsection (a), the return of such individual shall be made by a duly authorized agent, his committee, guardian, fiduciary or other person charged with the care of the person or property of such individual. The preceding sentence shall not apply in the case of a receiver appointed by authority of law in possession of only a part of the property of an individual.

(3) Receivers, trustees and assignees for corporations In a case where a receiver, trustee in a case under title 11 of the United States Code, or assignee, by order of a court of competent jurisdiction, by operation of law or otherwise, has possession of or holds title to all or substantially all the property or business of a corporation, whether or not such property or business is being operated, such receiver, trustee, or assignee shall make the return of income for such corporation in the same manner and form as corporations are required to make such returns.

(4) Returns of estates and trusts. Returns of an estate, a trust, or an estate of an individual under chapter 7 or 11 of title 11 of the United States Code shall be made by the fiduciary thereof.

(5) Joint fiduciaries. Under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, a return made by one of two or more joint fiduciaries shall be sufficient compliance with the requirements of this section. A return made pursuant to this paragraph shall contain a statement that the fiduciary has sufficient knowledge of the affairs of the person for whom the return is made to enable him to make the return, and that the return is, to the best of his knowledge and belief, true and correct.

(6) IRA share of partnership income. In the case of a trust which is exempt from taxation under section 408(e), for purposes of this section, the trust's distributive share of items of gross income and gain of any partnership to which subchapter C or D of chapter 63 applies shall be treated as equal to the trust's distributive share of the taxable income of such partnership.

(c) Certain income earned abroad or from sale of residence For purposes of this section, gross income shall be computed without regard to the exclusion provided for in section 121 (relating to gain from sale of principal residence) and without regard to the exclusion provided for in section 911 (relating to citizens or residents of the United States living abroad).

(d) Tax-exempt interest required to be shown on return Every person required to file a return under this section for the taxable year shall include on such return the amount of interest received or accrued during the taxable year which is exempt from the tax imposed by chapter 1.

(e) Consolidated returns. For provisions relating to consolidated returns by affiliated corporations, see chapter 6.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 732; Pub. L. 85-866, title I, § 72(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1660; Pub. L. 88-272, title II, § 206(b)(1), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 40; Pub. L. 91-172, title IX, § 941(a), (d), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 92-178, title II, § 204(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 93-443, title IV, § 407, Oct. 15, 1974, 88 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 93-625, § 10(b), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2119; Pub. L. 94-12, title II, § 201(b), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 29; Pub. L. 94-164, § 2(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 970; Pub. L. 94-455, title IV, § 401(b)(3), title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A), title XXI, § 2101(c), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1556, 1834, 1899; Pub. L. 95-30, title I, § 104, May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 95-600, title I, § 101(c), 102(b)(1), 105(d), title IV, § 404(c)(8), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2770, 2771, 2776, 2870; Pub. L. 95-615, § 202(g)(5), formerly § 202(f)(5), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3100, renumbered § 202(g)(5), Pub. L. 96-222, title I, § 108(a)(1)(A), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223; Pub. L. 96-589, § 3(b), 6(i)(5), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3400, 3410; Pub. L. 97-34, title I, § 104(d)(1), 111(b)(3), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 189, 194; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title IV, § 412(b)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 792; Pub. L. 99-514, title I, § 104(a)(1), title XV, § 1525(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2103, 2749; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, § 1001(b)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3349; Pub. L. 105-34, title III, § 312(d)(11), title XII, § 1225, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 840, 1019; Pub. L. 106-230, § 3(a)(1), July 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 482; Pub. L. 107-276, § 3(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1931.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6012)


§ 6020. Returns prepared for or executed by Secretary

(a) Preparation of return by Secretary. If any person shall fail to make a return required by this title or by regulations prescribed thereunder, but shall consent to disclose all information necessary for the preparation thereof, then, and in that case, the Secretary may prepare such return, which, being signed by such person, may be received by the Secretary as the return of such person.

(b) Execution of return by Secretary

(1) Authority of Secretary to execute return. If any person fails to make any return required by any internal revenue law or regulation made thereunder at the time prescribed therefor, or makes, willfully or otherwise, a false or fraudulent return, the Secretary shall make such return from his own knowledge and from such information as he can obtain through testimony or otherwise.

(2) Status of returns. Any return so made and subscribed by the Secretary shall be prima facie good and sufficient for all legal purposes.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 740; Pub. L. 90-364, title I, § 103(e)(3), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 264; Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title IV, § 412(b)(4), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 792.)

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6020)


§ 6062. Signing of corporation returns

The return of a corporation with respect to income shall be signed by the president, vice-president, treasurer, assistant treasurer, chief accounting officer or any other officer duly authorized so to act. In the case of a return made for a corporation by a fiduciary pursuant to the provisions of section 6012(b)(3), such fiduciary shall sign the return. The fact that an individual's name is signed on the return shall be prima facie evidence that such individual is authorized to sign the return on behalf of the corporation.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 748.)


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6062)


§ 6213. Restrictions applicable to deficiencies; petition to Tax Court

(a) Time for filing petition and restriction on assessment. Within 90 days, or 150 days if the notice is addressed to a person outside the United States, after the notice of deficiency authorized in section 6212 is mailed (not counting Saturday, Sunday, or a legal holiday in the District of Columbia as the last day), the taxpayer may file a petition with the Tax Court for a redetermination of the deficiency. Except as otherwise provided in section 6851, 6852, or 6861 no assessment of a deficiency in respect of any tax imposed by subtitle A, or B, chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 and no levy or proceeding in court for its collection shall be made, begun, or prosecuted until such notice has been mailed to the taxpayer, nor until the expiration of such 90-day or 150-day period, as the case may be, nor, if a petition has been filed with the Tax Court, until the decision of the Tax Court has become final. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7421(a), the making of such assessment or the beginning of such proceeding or levy during the time such prohibition is in force may be enjoined by a proceeding in the proper court, including the Tax Court, and a refund may be ordered by such court of any amount collected within the period during which the Secretary is prohibited from collecting by levy or through a proceeding in court under the provisions of this subsection. The Tax Court shall have no jurisdiction to enjoin any action or proceeding or order any refund under this subsection unless a timely petition for a redetermination of the deficiency has been filed and then only in respect of the deficiency that is the subject of such petition. Any petition filed with the Tax Court on or before the last date specified for filing such petition by the Secretary in the notice of deficiency shall be treated as timely filed.

(b) Exceptions to restrictions on assessment.

(1) Assessments arising out of mathematical or clerical errors. If the taxpayer is notified that, on account of a mathematical or clerical error appearing on the return, an amount of tax in excess of that shown on the return is due, and that an assessment of the tax has been or will be made on the basis of what would have been the correct amount of tax but for the mathematical or clerical error, such notice shall not be considered as a notice of deficiency for the purposes of subsection (a) (prohibiting assessment and collection until notice of the deficiency has been mailed), or of section 6212(c)(1) (restricting further deficiency letters), or of section 6512(a) (prohibiting credits or refunds after petition to the Tax Court), and the taxpayer shall have no right to file a petition with the Tax Court based on such notice, nor shall such assessment or collection be prohibited by the provisions of subsection (a) of this section. Each notice under this paragraph shall set forth the error alleged and an explanation thereof.

(2) Abatement of assessment of mathematical or clerical errors.

(A) Request for abatement. Notwithstanding section 6404(b), a taxpayer may file with the Secretary within 60 days after notice is sent under paragraph (1) a request for an abatement of any assessment specified in such notice, and upon receipt of such request, the Secretary shall abate the assessment. Any reassessment of the tax with respect to which an abatement is made under this subparagraph shall be subject to the deficiency procedures prescribed by this subchapter.

(B) Stay of collection. In the case of any assessment referred to in paragraph (1), notwithstanding paragraph (1), no levy or proceeding in court for the collection of such assessment shall be made, begun, or prosecuted during the period in which such assessment may be abated under this paragraph.

(3) Assessments arising out of tentative carryback or refund adjustments. If the Secretary determines that the amount applied, credited, or refunded under section 6411 is in excess of the overassessment attributable to the carryback or the amount described in section 1341(b)(1) with respect to which such amount was applied, credited, or refunded, he may assess without regard to the provisions of paragraph (2) the amount of the excess as a deficiency as if it were due to a mathematical or clerical error appearing on the return.

(4) Assessment of amount paid. Any amount paid as a tax or in respect of a tax may be assessed. upon the receipt of such payment notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a). In any case where such amount is paid after the mailing of a notice of deficiency under section 6212, such payment shall not deprive the Tax Court of jurisdiction over such deficiency determined under section 6211 without regard to such assessment.

(c) Failure to file petition. If the taxpayer does not file a petition with the Tax Court within the time prescribed in subsection (a), the deficiency, notice of which has been mailed to the taxpayer, shall be assessed, and shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Secretary.

(d) Waiver of restrictions. The taxpayer shall at any time (whether or not a notice of deficiency has been issued) have the right, by a signed notice in writing filed with the Secretary, to waive the restrictions provided in subsection (a) on the assessment and collection of the whole or any part of the deficiency.

(e) Suspension of filing period for certain excise taxes. The running of the time prescribed by subsection (a) for filing a petition in the Tax Court with respect to the taxes imposed by section 4941 (relating to taxes on self-dealing), 4942 (relating to taxes on failure to distribute income), 4943 (relating to taxes on excess business holdings), 4944 (relating to investments which jeopardize charitable purpose), 4945 (relating to taxes on taxable expenditures), 4951 (relating to taxes on self-dealing), or 4952 (relating to taxes on taxable expenditures), 4955 (relating to taxes on political expenditures), 4958 (relating to private excess benefit), 4971 (relating to excise taxes on failure to meet minimum funding standard), 4975 (relating to excise taxes on prohibited transactions) shall be suspended for any period during which the Secretary has extended the time allowed for making correction under section 4963(e).

(f) Coordination with title ".

(1) Suspension of running of period for filing petition in s. In any case under title 11 of the United States Code, the running of the time prescribed by subsection (a) for filing a petition in the Tax Court with respect to any deficiency shall be suspended for the period during which the debtor is prohibited by reason of such case from filing a petition in the Tax Court with respect to such deficiency, and for 60 days thereafter.

(2) Certain action not taken into account. For purposes of the second and third sentences of subsection (a), the filing of a proof of claim or request for payment (or the taking of any other action) in a case under title 11 of the United States Code shall not be treated as action prohibited by such second sentence.

(g) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(1) Return. The term "return" includes any return, statement, schedule, or list, and any amendment or supplement thereto, filed with respect to any tax imposed by subtitle A or B, or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44.

(2) Mathematical or clerical error. The term "mathematical or clerical error" means—

(A) an error in addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division shown on any return,

(B) an incorrect use of any table provided by the Internal Revenue Service with respect to any return if such incorrect use is apparent from the existence of other information on the return,

(C) an entry on a return of an item which is inconsistent with another entry of the same or another item on such return,

(D) an omission of information which is required to be supplied on the return to substantiate an entry on the return,

(E) an entry on a return of a deduction or credit in an amount which exceeds a statutory limit imposed by subtitle A or B, or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44, if such limit is expressed—

(i) as a specified monetary amount, or

(ii) as a percentage, ratio, or fraction, and if the items entering into the application of such limit appear on such return,

(F) an omission of a correct taxpayer identification number required under section 32 (relating to the earned income credit) to be included on a return,

(G) an entry on a return claiming the credit under section 32 with respect to net earnings from self-employment described in section 32(c)(2)(A) to the extent the tax imposed by section 1401 (relating to self-employment tax) on such net earnings has not been paid,

(H) an omission of a correct TIN required under section 21 (relating to expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment) or section 151 (relating to allowance of deductions for personal exemptions),

(I) an omission of a correct TIN required under section 24(e) (relating to child tax credit) to be included on a return,

(J) an omission of a correct TIN required under section 25A(g)(1) (relating to higher education tuition and related expenses) to be included on a return,

(K) an omission of information required by section 32(k)(2) (relating to taxpayers making improper prior claims of earned income credit), and

(L) the inclusion on a return of a TIN required to be included on the return under section 21, 24, or 32 if—

(i) such TIN is of an individual whose age affects the amount of the credit under such section, and

(ii) the computation of the credit on the return reflects the treatment of such individual as being of an age different from the individual's age based on such TIN. A taxpayer shall be treated as having omitted a correct TIN for purposes of the preceding sentence if information provided by the taxpayer on the return with respect to the individual whose TIN was provided differs from the information the Secretary obtains from the person issuing the TIN.

(M) the entry on the return claiming the credit under section 32 with respect to a child if, according to the Federal Case Registry of Child Support Orders established under section 453(h) of the Social Security Act, the taxpayer is a noncustodial parent of such child.

A taxpayer shall be treated as having omitted a correct TIN for purposes of the preceding sentence if information provided by the taxpayer on the return with respect to the individual whose TIN was provided differs from the information the Secretary obtains from the person issuing the TIN.

(h) Cross references.

(1) For assessment as if a mathematical error on the return, in the case of erroneous claims for income tax prepayment credits, see section 6201(a)(3).

(2) For assessments without regard to restrictions imposed by this section in the case of—

(A) Recovery of foreign income taxes, see section 905(c).

(B) Recovery of foreign estate tax, see section 2016.

(3) For provisions relating to application of this subchapter in the case of certain partnership items, etc., see section 6230(a).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 771; Pub. L. 89-44, title VIII, § 809(d)(4)(B), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 168; Pub. L. 91-172, title I, § 101(f)(3), (j)(42), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 524, 530; Pub. L. 93-406, title II, § 1016(a)(11), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 94-455, title XII, § 1204(c)(6), 1206(a)-(c)(1), title XIII, § 1307(d)(2)(F)(iii), title XVI, § 1605(b)(6), title XIX, § 1906(a)(15), (b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1698, 1703, 1704, 1728, 1755, 1825, 1834; Pub. L. 95-227, § 4(d)(1), (2), Feb. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 23; Pub. L. 95-600, title V, § 504(b)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2881; Pub. L. 96-223, title I, § 101(f)(1)(D), (E), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 252; Pub. L. 96-589, § 6(b)(1), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3407; Pub. L. 96-596, § 2(a)(4)(C), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3472; Pub. L. 97-248, title IV, § 402(c)(2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 667; Pub. L. 98-369, title III, § 305(b)(4), title IV, § 474(r)(34), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 784, 845; Pub. L. 99-514, title XVIII, § 1875(d)(2)(B)(i), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2896; Pub. L. 100-203, title X, § 10712(c)(1), 10713(b)(2)(D), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330-467, 1330-470; Pub. L. 100-418, title I, § 1941(b)(2)(B)(iv), (v), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, § 1015(r)(3), title VI, § 6243(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3573, 3749; Pub. L. 101-239, title VII, § 7811(k)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2412; Pub. L. 104-168, title XIII, § 1311(c)(3), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1478; Pub. L. 104-188, title I, § 1615(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1853; Pub. L. 104-193, title IV, § 451(c), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2277; Pub. L. 105-34, title I, § 101(d)(2), title II, § 201(b), title X, § 1085(a)(3), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 799, 803, 956; Pub. L. 105-206, title III, § 3463(b), 3464(a), title VI, § 6010(p)(3), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 767, 817; Pub. L. 105-277, div. J, title III, § 3003(a), (b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-905; Pub. L. 107-16, title III, § 303(g), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 56.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6213)


§ 6321. Lien for taxes.

If any person liable to pay any tax neglects or refuses to pay the same after demand, the amount (including any interest, additional amount, addition to tax, or assessable penalty, together with any costs that may accrue in addition thereto) shall be a lien in favor of the United States upon all property and rights to property, whether real or personal, belonging to such person.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 779.)


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6321)


§ 6322. Period of lien.

Unless another date is specifically fixed by law, the lien imposed by section 6321 shall arise at the time the assessment is made and shall continue until the liability for the amount so assessed (or a judgment against the taxpayer arising out of such liability) is satisfied or becomes unenforceable by reason of lapse of time.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 779; Pub. L. 89-719, title I, § 113(a), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1146.)


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6322)


§ 6323. Validity and priority against certain persons.

(a) Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. The lien imposed by section 6321 shall not be valid as against any purchaser, holder of a security interest, mechanic's lienor, or judgment lien creditor until notice thereof which meets the requirements of subsection (f) has been filed by the Secretary.

(b) Protection for certain interests even though notice filed. Even though notice of a lien imposed by section 6321 has been filed, such lien shall not be valid—

(1) Securities. With respect to a security (as defined in subsection (h)(4))—

(A) as against a purchaser of such security who at the time of purchase did not have actual notice or knowledge of the existence of such lien; and

(B) as against a holder of a security interest in such security who, at the time such interest came into existence, did not have actual notice or knowledge of the existence of such lien.

(2) Motor vehicles. With respect to a motor vehicle (as defined in subsection (h)(3)), as against a purchaser of such motor vehicle, if—

(A) at the time of the purchase such purchaser did not have actual notice or knowledge of the existence of such lien, and

(B) before the purchaser obtains such notice or knowledge, he has acquired possession of such motor vehicle and has not thereafter relinquished possession of such motor vehicle to the seller or his agent.

(3) Personal property purchased at retail. With respect to tangible personal property purchased at retail, as against a purchaser in the ordinary course of the seller's trade or business, unless at the time of such purchase such purchaser intends such purchase to (or knows such purchase will) hinder, evade, or defeat the collection of any tax under this title.

(4) Personal property purchased in casual sale. With respect to household goods, personal effects, or other tangible personal property described in section 6334(a) purchased (not for resale) in a casual sale for less than $1,000, as against the purchaser, but only if such purchaser does not have actual notice or knowledge

(A) of the existence of such lien, or

(B) that this sale is one of a series of sales.

(5) Personal property subject to possessory lien. With respect to tangible personal property subject to a lien under local law securing the reasonable price of the repair or improvement of such property, as against a holder of such a lien, if such holder is, and has been, continuously in possession of such property from the time such lien arose.

(6) Real property tax and special assessment liens. With respect to real property, as against a holder of a lien upon such property, if such lien is entitled under local law to priority over security interests in such property which are prior in time, and such lien secures payment of—

(A) a tax of general application levied by any taxing authority based upon the value of such property;

(B) a special assessment imposed directly upon such property by any taxing authority, if such assessment is imposed for the purpose of defraying the cost of any public improvement; or

(C) charges for utilities or public services furnished to such property by the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or an instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing.

(7) Residential property subject to a mechanic's lien for certain repairs and improvements. With respect to real property subject to a lien for repair or improvement of a personal residence (containing not more than four dwelling units) occupied by the owner of such residence, as against a mechanic's lienor, but only if the contract price on the contract with the owner is not more than $5,000.

(8) Attorneys' liens. With respect to a judgment or other amount in settlement of a claim or of a cause of action, as against an attorney who, under local law, holds a lien upon or a contract enforcible against such judgment or amount, to the extent of his reasonable compensation for obtaining such judgment or procuring such settlement, except that this paragraph shall not apply to any judgment or amount in settlement of a claim or of a cause of action against the United States to the extent that the United States offsets such judgment or amount against any liability of the taxpayer to the United States.

(9) Certain insurance contracts. With respect to a life insurance, endowment, or annuity contract, as against the organization which is the insurer under such contract, at any time—

(A) before such organization had actual notice or knowledge of the existence of such lien;

(B) after such organization had such notice or knowledge, with respect to advances required to be made automatically to maintain such contract in force under an agreement entered into before such organization had such notice or knowledge; or

(C) after satisfaction of a levy pursuant to section 6332(b), unless and until the Secretary delivers to such organization a notice, executed after the date of such satisfaction, of the existence of such lien.

(10) Deposit-secured loans. With respect to a savings deposit, share, or other account with an institution described in section 581 or 591, to the extent of any loan made by such institution without actual notice or knowledge of the existence of such lien, as against such institution, if such loan is secured by such account.

(c) Protection for certain commercial transactions financing agreements, etc.

(1) In general. To the extent provided in this subsection, even though notice of a lien imposed by section 6321 has been filed, such lien shall not be valid with respect to a security interest which came into existence after tax lien filing but which—

(A) is in qualified property covered by the terms of a written agreement entered into before tax lien filing and constituting—

(i) a commercial transactions financing agreement,

(ii) a real property construction or improvement financing agreement, or

(iii) an obligatory disbursement agreement, and

(B) is protected under local law against a judgment lien arising, as of the time of tax lien filing, out of an unsecured obligation.

(2) Commercial transactions financing agreement. For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Definition. The term "commercial transactions financing agreement" means an agreement (entered into by a person in the course of his trade or business)—

(i) to make loans to the taxpayer to be secured by commercial financing security acquired by the taxpayer in the ordinary course of his trade or business, or

(ii) to purchase commercial financing security (other than inventory) acquired by the taxpayer in the ordinary course of his trade or business;

but such an agreement shall be treated as coming within the term only to the extent that such loan or purchase is made before the 46th day after the date of tax lien filing or (if earlier) before the lender or purchaser had actual notice or knowledge of such tax lien filing.

(B) Limitation on qualified property. The term "qualified property", when used with respect to a commercial transactions financing agreement, includes only commercial financing security acquired by the taxpayer before the 46th day after the date of tax lien filing.

(C) Commercial financing security defined. The term "commercial financing security" means (i) paper of a kind ordinarily arising in commercial transactions, (ii) accounts receivable, (iii) mortgages on real property, and (iv) inventory.

(D) Purchaser treated as acquiring security interest. A person who satisfies subparagraph (A) by reason of clause (ii) thereof shall be treated as having acquired a security interest in commercial financing security

(3) Real property construction or improvement financing agreement. For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Definition. The term "real property construction or improvement financing agreement" means an agreement to make cash disbursements to finance—

(i) the construction or improvement of real property,

(ii) a contract to construct or improve real property, or

(iii) the raising or harvesting of a farm crop or the raising of livestock or other animals.

For purposes of clause (iii), the furnishing of goods and services shall be treated as the disbursement of cash.

(B) Limitation on qualified property. The term "qualified property", when used with respect to a real property construction or improvement financing agreement, includes only—

(i) in the case of subparagraph (A)(i), the real property with respect to which the construction or improvement has been or is to be made,

(ii) in the case of subparagraph (A)(ii), the proceeds of the contract described therein, and

(iii) in the case of subparagraph (A)(iii), property subject to the lien imposed by section 6321 at the time of tax lien filing and the crop or the livestock or other animals referred to in subparagraph (A)(iii).

(4) Obligatory disbursement agreement. For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Definition. The term "obligatory disbursement agreement" means an agreement (entered into by a person in the course of his trade or business) to make disbursements, but such an agreement shall be treated as coming within the term only to the extent of disbursements which are required to be made by reason of the intervention of the rights of a person other than the taxpayer.

(B) Limitation on qualified property. The term "qualified property", when used with respect to an obligatory disbursement agreement, means property subject to the lien imposed by section 6321 at the time of tax lien filing and (to the extent that the acquisition is directly traceable to the disbursements referred to in subparagraph (A)) property acquired by the taxpayer after tax lien filing.

(C) Special rules for surety agreements. Where the obligatory disbursement agreement is an agreement ensuring the performance of a contract between the taxpayer and another person—

(i) the term "qualified property" shall be treated as also including the proceeds of the contract the performance of which was ensured, and

(ii) if the contract the performance of which was ensured was a contract to construct or improve real property, to produce goods, or to furnish services, the term "qualified property" shall be treated as also including any tangible personal property used by the taxpayer in the performance of such ensured contract.

(d) 45-day period for making disbursements. Even though notice of a lien imposed by section 6321 has been filed, such lien shall not be valid with respect to a security interest which came into existence after tax lien filing by reason of disbursements made before the 46th day after the date of tax lien filing, or (if earlier) before the person making such disbursements had actual notice or knowledge of tax lien filing, but only if such security interest—

(1) is in property

(A) subject, at the time of tax lien filing, to the lien imposed by section 6321, and 

(B) covered by the terms of a written agreement entered into before tax lien filing, and

(2) is protected under local law against a judgment lien arising, as of the time of tax lien filing, out of an unsecured obligation.

(e) Priority of interest and expenses. If the lien imposed by section 6321 is not valid as against a lien or security interest, the priority of such lien or security interest shall extend to—

(1) any interest or carrying charges upon the obligation secured,

(2) the reasonable charges and expenses of an indenture trustee or agent holding the security interest for the benefit of the holder of the security interest,

(3) the reasonable expenses, including reasonable compensation for attorneys, actually incurred in collecting or enforcing the obligation secured,

(4) the reasonable costs of insuring, preserving, or repairing the property to which the lien or security interest relates,

(5) the reasonable costs of insuring payment of the obligation secured, and

(6) amounts paid to satisfy any lien on the property to which the lien or security interest relates, but only if the lien so satisfied is entitled to priority over the lien imposed by section 6321,

to the extent that, under local law, any such item has the same priority as the lien or security interest to which it relates.

(f) Place for filing notice; form.

(1) Place for filing. The notice referred to in subsection (a) shall be filed—

(A) Under State laws.

(i) Real property. In the case of real property, in one office within the State (or the county, or other governmental subdivision), as designated by the laws of such State, in which the property subject to the lien is situated; and

(ii) Personal property. In the case of personal property, whether tangible or intangible, in one office within the State (or the county, or other governmental subdivision), as designated by the laws of such State, in which the property subject to the lien is situated, except that State law merely conforming to or reenacting Federal law establishing a national filing system does not constitute a second office for filing as designated by the laws of such State; or

(B) With clerk of district court. In the office of the clerk of the United States district court for the judicial district in which the property subject to the lien is situated, whenever the State has not by law designated one office which meets the requirements of subparagraph (A); or

(C) With Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia.  In the office of the Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia, if the property subject to the lien is situated in the District of Columbia.

(2) Situs of property subject to lien. For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (4), property shall be deemed to be situated—

(A) Real property. In the case of real property, at its physical location; or

(B) Personal property. In the case of personal property, whether tangible or intangible, at the residence of the taxpayer at the time the notice of lien is filed.

For purposes of paragraph (2)(B), the residence of a corporation or partnership shall be deemed to be the place at which the principal executive office of the business is located, and the residence of a taxpayer whose residence is without the United States shall be deemed to be in the District of Columbia.

(3) Form. The form and content of the notice referred to in subsection (a) shall be prescribed by the Secretary. Such notice shall be valid notwithstanding any other provision of law regarding the form or content of a notice of lien.

(4) Indexing required with respect to certain real property. In the case of real property, if—

(A) under the laws of the State in which the real property is located, a deed is not valid as against a purchaser of the property who (at the time of purchase) does not have actual notice or knowledge of the existence of such deed unless the fact of filing of such deed has been entered and recorded in a public index at the place of filing in such a manner that a reasonable inspection of the index will reveal the existence of the deed, and

(B) there is maintained (at the applicable office under paragraph (1)) an adequate system for the public indexing of Federal tax liens,

then the notice of lien referred to in subsection (a) shall not be treated as meeting the filing requirements under paragraph (1) unless the fact of filing is entered and recorded in the index referred to in subparagraph (B) in such a manner that a reasonable inspection of the index will reveal the existence of the lien.

(5) National filing systems. The filing of a notice of lien shall be governed solely by this title and shall not be subject to any other Federal law establishing a place or places for the filing of liens or encumbrances under a national filing system.

(g) Refiling of notice. For purposes of this section—

(1) General rule. Unless notice of lien is refiled in the manner prescribed in paragraph (2) during the required refiling period, such notice of lien shall be treated as filed on the date on which it is filed (in accordance with subsection (f)) after the expiration of such refiling period.

(2) Place for filing. A notice of lien refiled during the required refiling period shall be effective only—

(A) if—

(i) such notice of lien is refiled in the office in which the prior notice of lien was filed, and

(ii) in the case of real property, the fact of refiling is entered and recorded in an index to the extent required by subsection (f)(4); and

(B) in any case in which, 90 days or more prior to the date of a refiling of notice of lien under subparagraph (A), the Secretary received written information (in the manner prescribed in regulations issued by the Secretary) concerning a change in the taxpayer's residence, if a notice of such lien is also filed in accordance with subsection (f) in the State in which such residence is located.

(3) Required refiling period. In the case of any notice of lien, the term "required refiling period" means—

(A) the one-year period ending 30 days after the expiration of 10 years after the date of the assessment of the tax, and

(B) the one-year period ending with the expiration of 10 years after the close of the preceding required refiling period for such notice of lien.

(4) Transitional rule. Notwithstanding paragraph (3), if the assessment of the tax was made before January 1, 1962, the first required refiling period shall be the calendar year 1967.

(h) Definitions. For purposes of this section and section 6324—

(1) Security interest. The term "security interest" means any interest in property acquired by contract for the purpose of securing payment or performance of an obligation or indemnifying against loss or liability. A security interest exists at any time

(A) if, at such time, the property is in existence and the interest has become protected under local law against a subsequent judgment lien arising out of an unsecured obligation, and

(B) to the extent that, at such time, the holder has parted with money or money's worth.

(2) Mechanic's lienor. The term "mechanic's lienor" means any person who under local law has a lien on real property (or on the proceeds of a contract relating to real property) for services, labor, or materials furnished in connection with the construction or improvement of such property. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a person has a lien on the earliest date such lien becomes valid under local law against subsequent purchasers without actual notice, but not before he begins to furnish the services, labor, or materials.

(3) Motor vehicle. The term "motor vehicle" means a self-propelled vehicle which is registered for highway use under the laws of any State or foreign country.

(4) Security. The term "security" means any bond, debenture, note, or certificate or other evidence of indebtedness, issued by a corporation or a government or political subdivision thereof, with interest coupons or in registered form, share of stock, voting trust certificate, or any certificate of interest or participation in, certificate of deposit or receipt for, temporary or interim certificate for, or warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing; negotiable instrument; or money.

(5) Tax lien filing. The term "tax lien filing" means the filing of notice (referred to in subsection (a)) of the lien imposed by section 6321.

(6) Purchaser. The term "purchaser" means a person who, for adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth, acquires an interest (other than a lien or security interest) in property which is valid under local law against subsequent purchasers without actual notice. In applying the preceding sentence for purposes of subsection (a) of this section, and for purposes of section 6324—

(A) a lease of property,

(B) a written executory contract to purchase or lease property,

(C) an option to purchase or lease property or any interest therein, or

(D) an option to renew or extend a lease of property, which is not a lien or security interest shall be treated as an interest in property.

(i) Special rules.

(1) Actual notice or knowledge. For purposes of this subchapter, an organization shall be deemed for purposes of a particular transaction to have actual notice or knowledge of any fact from the time such fact is brought to the attention of the individual conducting such transaction, and in any event from the time such fact would have been brought to such individual's attention if the organization had exercised due diligence. An organization exercises due diligence if it maintains reasonable routines for communicating significant information to the person conducting the transaction and there is reasonable compliance with the routine. Due diligence does not require an individual acting for the organization to communicate information unless such communication is part of his regular duties or unless he has reason to know of the transaction and that the transaction would be materially affected by the information.

(2) Subrogation. Where, under local law, one person is subrogated to the rights of another with respect to a lien or interest, such person shall be subrogated to such rights for purposes of any lien imposed by section 6321 or 6324.

(3) Forfeitures. For purposes of this subchapter, a forfeiture under local law of property seized by a law enforcement agency of a State, county, or other local governmental subdivision shall relate back to the time of seizure, except that this paragraph shall not apply to the extent that under local law the holder of an intervening claim or interest would have priority over the interest of the State, county, or other local governmental subdivision in the property.

(4) Cost-of-living adjustment. In the case of notices of liens imposed by section 6321 which are filed in any calendar year after 1998, each of the dollar amounts under paragraph (4) or (7) of subsection (b) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year, determined by substituting "calendar year 1996" for "calendar year 1992" in subparagraph (B) thereof.

If any amount as adjusted under the preceding sentence is not a multiple of $10, such amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10.

(j) Withdrawal of notice in certain circumstances.

(1) In general. The Secretary may withdraw a notice of a lien filed under this section and this chapter shall be applied as if the withdrawn notice had not been filed, if the Secretary determines that—

(A) the filing of such notice was premature or otherwise not in accordance with administrative procedures of the Secretary,

(B) the taxpayer has entered into an agreement under section 6159 to satisfy the tax liability for which the lien was imposed by means of installment payments, unless such agreement provides otherwise,

(C) the withdrawal of such notice will facilitate the collection of the tax liability, or

(D) with the consent of the taxpayer or the National Taxpayer Advocate, the withdrawal of such notice would be in the best interests of the taxpayer (as determined by the National Taxpayer Advocate) and the United States.

Any such withdrawal shall be made by filing notice at the same office as the withdrawn notice. A copy of such notice of withdrawal shall be provided to the taxpayer.

(2) Notice to credit agencies, etc. Upon written request by the taxpayer with respect to whom a notice of a lien was withdrawn under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall promptly make reasonable efforts to notify credit reporting agencies, and any financial institution or creditor whose name and address is specified in such request, of the withdrawal of such notice. Any such request shall be in such form as the Secretary may prescribe.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 779; Pub. L. 88-272, title II, § 236(a), (c)(1), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 127, 128; Pub. L. 89-493, § 17(a), July 5, 1966, 80 Stat. 266; Pub. L. 89-719, title I, § 101(a), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1125; Pub. L. 94-455, title XII, § 1202(h)(2), title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A), title XX, § 2008(c), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1688, 1834, 1892; Pub. L. 95-600, title VII, § 702(q)(1), (2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2937, 2938; Pub. L. 99-514, title XV, § 1569(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2764; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, § 1015(s)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3573; Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, § 11317(b), 11704(a)(26), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-458, 1388-519; Pub. L. 104-168, title V, § 501(a), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1460; Pub. L. 105-206, title I, § 1102(d)(1)(A), title III, § 3435(a), (b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 704, 760, 761.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6323)


§ 6334. Property exempt from levy

(a) Enumeration. There shall be exempt from levy—

(1) Wearing apparel and school books. Such items of wearing apparel and such school books as are necessary for the taxpayer or for members of his family;

(2) Fuel, provisions, furniture, and personal effects. So much of the fuel, provisions, furniture, and personal effects in the taxpayer's household, and of the arms for personal use, livestock, and poultry of the taxpayer, as does not exceed $6,250 in value;

(3) Books and tools of a trade, business, or profession. So many of the books and tools necessary for the trade, business, or profession of the taxpayer as do not exceed in the aggregate $3,125 in value.

(4) Unemployment benefits. Any amount payable to an individual with respect to his unemployment (including any portion thereof payable with respect to dependents) under an unemployment compensation law of the United States, of any State, or of the District of Columbia or of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(5) Undelivered mail. Mail, addressed to any person, which has not been delivered to the addressee.

(6) Certain annuity and pension payments. Annuity or pension payments under the Railroad Retirement Act, benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, special pension payments received by a person whose name has been entered on the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard Medal of Honor roll (38 U.S.C. 1562), and annuities based on retired or retainer pay under chapter 73 of title 10 of the United States Code.

(7) Workmen's compensation. Any amount payable to an individual as workmen's compensation (including any portion thereof payable with respect to dependents) under a workmen's compensation law of the United States, any State, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(8) Judgments for support of minor children. If the taxpayer is required by judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction, entered prior to the date of levy, to contribute to the support of his minor children, so much of his salary, wages, or other income as is necessary to comply with such judgment.

(9) Minimum exemption for wages, salary, and other income. Any amount payable to or received by an individual as wages or salary for personal services, or as income derived from other sources, during any period, to the extent that the total of such amounts payable to or received by him during such period does not exceed the applicable exempt amount determined under subsection (d).

(10) Certain service-connected disability payments. Any amount payable to an individual as a service-connected (within the meaning of section 101(16) of title 38, United States Code) disability benefit under—

(A) subchapter II, III, IV, V,, or VI of chapter 11 of such title 38, or

(B) chapter 13, 21, 23, 31, 32, 34, 35, 37, or 39 of such title 38.

(11) Certain public assistance payments. Any amount payable to an individual as a recipient of public assistance under—

(A) title IV or title XVI (relating to supplemental security income for the aged, blind, and disabled) of the Social Security Act, or

(B) State or local government public assistance or public welfare programs for which eligibility is determined by a needs or income test.

(12) Assistance under Job Training Partnership Act. Any amount payable to a participant under the Job Training Partnership Act (29 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.) from funds appropriated pursuant to such Act.

(13) Residences exempt in small deficiency cases and principal residences and certain business assets exempt in absence of certain approval or jeopardy

(A) Residences in small deficiency cases. If the amount of the levy does not exceed $5,000—

(i) any real property used as a residence by the taxpayer; or

(ii) any real property of the taxpayer (other than real property which is rented) used by any other individual as a residence.

(B) Principal residences and certain business assets. Except to the extent provided in subsection (e)

(i) the principal residence of the taxpayer (within the meaning of section 121); and

(ii) tangible personal property or real property (other than real property which is rented) used in the trade or business of an individual taxpayer.

(b) Appraisal. The officer seizing property of the type described in subsection (a) shall appraise and set aside to the owner the amount of such property declared to be exempt. If the taxpayer objects at the time of the seizure to the valuation fixed by the officer making the seizure, the Secretary shall summon three disinterested individuals who shall make the valuation.

(c) No other property exempt. Notwithstanding any other law of the United States (including section 207 of the Social Security Act), no property or rights to property shall be exempt from levy other than the property specifically made exempt by subsection (a).

(d) Exempt amount of wages, salary, or other income

(1) Individuals on weekly basis. In the case of an individual who is paid or receives all of his wages, salary, and other income on a weekly basis, the amount of the wages, salary, and other income payable to or received by him during any week which is exempt from levy under subsection (a)(9) shall be the exempt amount.

(2) Exempt amount. For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "exempt amount" means an amount equal to—

(A) the sum of— 

(i) the standard deduction, and

(ii) the aggregate amount of the deductions for personal exemptions allowed the taxpayer under section 151 in the taxable year in which such levy occurs, divided by

(B) 52.

Unless the taxpayer submits to the Secretary a written and properly verified statement specifying the facts necessary to determine the proper amount under subparagraph (A), subparagraph (A) shall be applied as if the taxpayer were a married individual filing a separate return with only 1 personal exemption.

(3) Individuals on basis other than weekly.  In the case of any individual not described in paragraph (1), the amount of the wages, salary, and other income payable to or received by him during any applicable pay period or other fiscal period (as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) which is exempt from levy under subsection (a)(9) shall be an amount (determined under such regulations) which as nearly as possible will result in the same total exemption from levy for such individual over a period of time as he would have under paragraph (1) if (during such period of time) he were paid or received such wages, salary, and other income on a regular weekly basis.

(e) Levy allowed on principal residences and certain business assets in certain circumstances

(1) Principal residences

(A) Approval required. A principal residence shall not be exempt from levy if a judge or magistrate of a district court of the United States approves (in writing) the levy of such residence.

(B) Jurisdiction. The district courts of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction to approve a levy under subparagraph (A).

(2) Certain business assets. Property (other than a principal residence) described in subsection (a)(13)(B) shall not be exempt from levy if—

(A) a district director or assistant district director of the Internal Revenue Service personally approves (in writing) the levy of such property; or

(B) the Secretary finds that the collection of tax is in jeopardy.

An official may not approve a levy under subparagraph (A) unless the official determines that the taxpayer's other assets subject to collection are insufficient to pay the amount due, together with expenses of the proceedings.

(f) Levy allowed on certain specified payments. Any payment described in subparagraph (B) or (C) of section 6331(h)(2) shall not be exempt from levy if the Secretary approves the levy thereon under section 6331(h).

(g) Inflation adjustment

(1) In general. In the case of any calendar year beginning after 1999, each dollar amount referred to in paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (a) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for such calendar year, by substituting "calendar year 1998" for "calendar year 1992" in subparagraph (B) thereof.

(2) Rounding If any dollar amount after being increased under paragraph (1) is not a multiple of $10, such dollar amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 784; Pub. L. 85-840, title IV, § 406, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1047; Pub. L. 89-44, title VIII, § 812(a), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 170; Pub. L. 89-719, title I, § 104(c), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1137; Pub. L. 91-172, title IX, § 945(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 729; Pub. L. 94-455, title XII, § 1209(a)-(c), title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1709, 1710, 1834; Pub. L. 97-248, title III, § 347(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 638; Pub. L. 98-369, div. B, title VI, § 2661(o)(5), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1159; Pub. L. 99-514, title XV, § 1565(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2763; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, § 1015(o), title VI, § 6236(c), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3572, 3738; Pub. L. 102-83, § 5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406; Pub. L. 104-168, title V, § 502(a)-(c), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1461; Pub. L. 104-193, title I, § 110(l)(3), formerly § 110(l)(6), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2173, renumbered and amended Pub. L. 105-33, title V, § 5514(a)(2), (3), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 620; Pub. L. 105-34, title III, § 312(d)(1), title X, § 1025(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 839, 924; Pub. L. 105-206, title III, § 3431(a)-(c), 3445(a), (b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 758, 762, 763.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6334)


§ 6501. Limitations on assessment and collection.

(a) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amount of any tax imposed by this title shall be assessed within 3 years after the return was filed (whether or not such return was filed on or after the date prescribed) or, if the tax is payable by stamp, at any time after such tax became due and before the expiration of 3 years after the date on which any part of such tax was paid, and no proceeding in court without assessment for the collection of such tax shall be begun after the expiration of such period. For purposes of this chapter, the term "return" means the return required to be filed by the taxpayer (and does not include a return of any person from whom the taxpayer has received an item of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit).

(b) Time return deemed filed

(1) Early return.  For purposes of this section, a return of tax imposed by this title, except tax imposed by chapter 3, 21, or 24, filed before the last day prescribed by law or by regulations promulgated pursuant to law for the filing thereof, shall be considered as filed on such last day.

(2) Return of certain employment taxes and tax imposed by chapter 3.  For purposes of this section, if a return of tax imposed by chapter 3, 21, or 24 for any period ending with or within a calendar year is filed before April 15 of the succeeding calendar year, such return shall be considered filed on April 15 of such calendar year.

(3) Return executed by Secretary .  Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (2) of section 6020 (b), the execution of a return by the Secretary pursuant to the authority conferred by such section shall not start the running of the period of limitations on assessment and collection.

(4) Return of excise taxes.  For purposes of this section, the filing of a return for a specified period on which an entry has been made with respect to a tax imposed under a provision of subtitle D (including a return on which an entry has been made showing no liability for such tax for such period) shall constitute the filing of a return of all amounts of such tax which, if properly paid, would be required to be reported on such return for such period.

(c) Exceptions

(1) False return.  In the case of a false or fraudulent return with the intent to evade tax, the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time.

(2) Willful attempt to evade tax.  In case of a willful attempt in any manner to defeat or evade tax imposed by this title (other than tax imposed by subtitle A or B), the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time.

(3) No return. In the case of failure to file a return, the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time.

(4) Extension by agreement

(A) In general.  Where, before the expiration of the time prescribed in this section for the assessment of any tax imposed by this title, except the estate tax provided in chapter 11, both the Secretary and the taxpayer have consented in writing to its assessment after such time, the tax may be assessed at any time prior to the expiration of the period agreed upon. The period so agreed upon may be extended by subsequent agreements in writing made before the expiration of the period previously agreed upon.

(B) Notice to taxpayer of right to refuse or limit extension. The Secretary shall notify the taxpayer of the taxpayer's right to refuse to extend the period of limitations, or to limit such extension to particular issues or to a particular period of time, on each occasion when the taxpayer is requested to provide such consent.

(5) Tax resulting from changes in certain income tax or estate tax credits.  For special rules applicable in cases where the adjustment of certain taxes allowed as a credit against income taxes or estate taxes results in additional tax, see section 905 (c) (relating to the foreign tax credit for income tax purposes) and section 2016 (relating to taxes of foreign countries, States, etc., claimed as credit against estate taxes).

(6) Termination of private foundation status.  In the case of a tax on termination of private foundation status under section 507, such tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time.

(7) Special rule for certain amended returns.  Where, within the 60-day period ending on the day on which the time prescribed in this section for the assessment of any tax imposed by subtitle A for any taxable year would otherwise expire, the Secretary receives a written document signed by the taxpayer showing that the taxpayer owes an additional amount of such tax for such taxable year, the period for the assessment of such additional amount shall not expire before the day 60 days after the day on which the Secretary receives such document.

(8) Failure to notify Secretary of certain foreign transfers.  In the case of any information which is required to be reported to the Secretary under section 6038, 6038A, 6038B, 6046, 6046A, or 6048, the time for assessment of any tax imposed by this title with respect to any event or period to which such information relates shall not expire before the date which is 3 years after the date on which the Secretary is furnished the information required to be reported under such section.

(9) Gift tax on certain gifts not shown on return.  If any gift of property the value of which (or any increase in taxable gifts required under section 2701 (d) which) is required to be shown on a return of tax imposed by chapter 12 (without regard to section 2503 (b)), and is not shown on such return, any tax imposed by chapter 12 on such gift may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any item which is disclosed in such return, or in a statement attached to the return, in a manner adequate to apprise the Secretary of the nature of such item.

(10) Listed transactions.--If a taxpayer fails to include on any return or statement for any taxable year any information with respect to a listed transaction (as defined in section 6707A(c)(2)) which is required under section 6011 to be included with such return or statement, the time for assessment of any tax imposed by this title with respect to such transaction shall not expire before the date which is 1 year after the earlier of—

(A) the date on which the Secretary is furnished the information so required, or

(B) the date that a material advisor (as defined in section 6111) meets the requirements of section 6112 with respect to a request by the Secretary under section 6112(b) relating to such transaction with respect to such taxpayer.

(d) Request for prompt assessment.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection (c), (e), or (f), in the case of any tax (other than the tax imposed by chapter 11 of subtitle B, relating to estate taxes) for which return is required in the case of a decedent, or by his estate during the period of administration, or by a corporation, the tax shall be assessed, and any proceeding in court without assessment for the collection of such tax shall be begun, within 18 months after written request therefor (filed after the return is made and filed in such manner and such form as may be prescribed by regulations of the Secretary) by the executor, administrator, or other fiduciary representing the estate of such decedent, or by the corporation, but not after the expiration of 3 years after the return was filed. This subsection shall not apply in the case of a corporation unless—

(1)(A) such written request notifies the Secretary that the corporation contemplates dissolution at or before the expiration of such 18-month period,

(B) the dissolution is in good faith begun before the expiration of such 18-month period, and

(C) the dissolution is completed;

(2)(A) such written request notifies the Secretary that a dissolution has in good faith been begun, and

(B) the dissolution is completed; or

(3) a dissolution has been completed at the time such written request is made.

(e) Substantial omission of items.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection (c)—

(1) Income taxes.  In the case of any tax imposed by subtitle A—

(A) General rule.  If the taxpayer omits from gross income an amount properly includible therein which is in excess of 25 percent of the amount of gross income stated in the return, the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time within 6 years after the return was filed. For purposes of this subparagraph—

(i) In the case of a trade or business, the term "gross income" means the total of the amounts received or accrued from the sale of goods or services (if such amounts are required to be shown on the return) prior to diminution by the cost of such sales or services; and

(ii) In determining the amount omitted from gross income, there shall not be taken into account any amount which is omitted from gross income stated in the return if such amount is disclosed in the return, or in a statement attached to the return, in a manner adequate to apprise the Secretary of the nature and amount of such item.

(B) Constructive dividends.—If the taxpayer omits from gross income an amount properly includible therein under section 951(a), the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be done without assessing, at any time within 6 years after the return was filed.

(2) Estate and gift taxes.  In the case of a return of estate tax under chapter 11 or a return of gift tax under chapter 12, if the taxpayer omits from the gross estate or from the total amount of the gifts made during the period for which the return was filed items includible in such gross estate or such total gifts, as the case may be, as exceed in amount 25 percent of the gross estate stated in the return or the total amount of gifts stated in the return, the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time within 6 years after the return was filed. In determining the items omitted from the gross estate or the total gifts, there shall not be taken into account any item which is omitted from the gross estate or from the total gifts stated in the return if such item is disclosed in the return, or in a statement attached to the return, in a manner adequate to apprise the Secretary of the nature and amount of such item.

(3) Excise taxes.  In the case of a return of a tax imposed under a provision of subtitle D, if the return omits an amount of such tax properly includible thereon which exceeds 25 percent of the amount of such tax reported thereon, the tax may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time within 6 years after the return is filed. In determining the amount of tax omitted on a return, there shall not be taken into account any amount of tax imposed by chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 which is omitted from the return if the transaction giving rise to such tax is disclosed in the return, or in a statement attached to the return, in a manner adequate to apprise the Secretary of the existence and nature of such item.

(f) Personal holding company tax.  If a corporation which is a personal holding company for any taxable year fails to file with its return under chapter 1 for such year a schedule setting forth—

(1) the items of gross income and adjusted ordinary gross income, described in section 543, received by the corporation during such year, and

(2) the names and addresses of the individuals who owned, within the meaning of section 544 (relating to rules for determining stock ownership), at any time during the last half of such year more than 50 percent in value of the outstanding capital stock of the corporation,

the personal holding company tax for such year may be assessed, or a proceeding in court for the collection of such tax may be begun without assessment, at any time within 6 years after the return for such year was filed.

(g) Certain income tax returns of corporations

(1) Trusts or partnerships.  If a taxpayer determines in good faith that it is a trust or partnership and files a return as such under subtitle A, and if such taxpayer is thereafter held to be a corporation for the taxable year for which the return is filed, such return shall be deemed the return of the corporation for purposes of this section.

(2) Exempt organizations.  If a taxpayer determines in good faith that it is an exempt organization and files a return as such under section 6033, and if such taxpayer is thereafter held to be a taxable organization for the taxable year for which the return is filed, such return shall be deemed the return of the organization for purposes of this section.

(3) DISC.  If a corporation determines in good faith that it is a DISC (as defined in section 992 (a)) and files a return as such under section 6011 (c)(2) and if such corporation is thereafter held to be a corporation which is not a DISC for the taxable year for which the return is filed, such return shall be deemed the return of a corporation which is not a DISC for purposes of this section.

(h) Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.  In the case of a deficiency attributable to the application to the taxpayer of a net operating loss carryback or a capital loss carryback (including deficiencies which may be assessed pursuant to the provisions of section 6213 (b)(3)), such deficiency may be assessed at any time before the expiration of the period within which a deficiency for the taxable year of the net operating loss or net capital loss which results in such carryback may be assessed.

(i) Foreign tax carrybacks.  In the case of a deficiency attributable to the application to the taxpayer of a carryback under section 904 (c) (relating to carryback and carryover of excess foreign taxes) or under section 907 (f) (relating to carryback and carryover of disallowed oil and gas extraction taxes), such deficiency may be assessed at any time before the expiration of one year after the expiration of the period within which a deficiency may be assessed for the taxable year of the excess taxes described in section 904 (c) or 907 (f) which result in such carryback.

(j) Certain credit carrybacks

(1) In general.  In the case of a deficiency attributable to the application to the taxpayer of a credit carryback (including deficiencies which may be assessed pursuant to the provisions of section 6213 (b)(3)), such deficiency may be assessed at any time before the expiration of the period within which a deficiency for the taxable year of the unused credit which results in such carryback may be assessed, or with respect to any portion of a credit carryback from a taxable year attributable to a net operating loss carryback, capital loss carryback, or other credit carryback from a subsequent taxable year, at any time before the expiration of the period within which a deficiency for such subsequent taxable year may be assessed.

(2) Credit carryback defined.  For purposes of this subsection, the term "credit carryback" has the meaning given such term by section 6511 (d)(4)(C).

(k) Tentative carryback adjustment assessment period.  In a case where an amount has been applied, credited, or refunded under section 6411 (relating to tentative carryback and refund adjustments) by reason of a net operating loss carryback, a capital loss carryback, or a credit carryback (as defined in section 6511 (d)(4)(C)) to a prior taxable year, the period described in subsection (a) of this section for assessing a deficiency for such prior taxable year shall be extended to include the period described in subsection (h) or (j), whichever is applicable; except that the amount which may be assessed solely by reason of this subsection shall not exceed the amount so applied, credited, or refunded under section 6411, reduced by any amount which may be assessed solely by reason of subsection (h) or (j), as the case may be.

(l) Special rule for chapter 42 and similar taxes

(1) In general.  For purposes of any tax imposed by section 4912, by chapter 42 (other than section 4940), or by section 4975, the return referred to in this section shall be the return filed by the private foundation, plan, trust, or other organization (as the case may be) for the year in which the act (or failure to act) giving rise to liability for such tax occurred. For purposes of section 4940, such return is the return filed by the private foundation for the taxable year for which the tax is imposed.

(2) Certain contributions to section 501 (c)(3) organizations.  In the case of a deficiency of tax of a private foundation making a contribution in the manner provided in section 4942 (g)(3) (relating to certain contributions to section 501 (c)(3) organizations) attributable to the failure of a section 501 (c)(3) organization to make the distribution prescribed by section 4942 (g)(3), such deficiency may be assessed at any time before the expiration of one year after the expiration of the period within which a deficiency may be assessed for the taxable year with respect to which the contribution was made.

(3) Certain set-asides described in section 4942 (g)(2).  In the case of a deficiency attributable to the failure of an amount set aside by a private foundation for a specific project to be treated as a qualifying distribution under the provisions of section 4942 (g)(2)(B)(ii), such deficiency may be assessed at any time before the expiration of 2 years after the expiration of the period within which a deficiency may be assessed for the taxable year to which the amount set aside relates.

(m) Deficiencies attributable to election of certain credits.  The period for assessing a deficiency attributable to any election under section 30 (d)(4), 40 (f), 43, 45B, 45C (d)(4), or 51 (j) (or any revocation thereof) shall not expire before the date 1 year after the date on which the Secretary is notified of such election (or revocation).

(n) Cross references

(1) For period of limitations for assessment and collection in the case of a joint income return filed after separate returns have been filed, see section 6013 (b)(3) and (4).

(2) For extension of period in the case of partnership items (as defined in section 6231 (a)(3)), see section 6229.

(3) For declaratory judgment relating to treatment of items other than partnership items with respect to an oversheltered return, see section 6234.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 803; Pub. L. 85-859, title I, § 165(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1313; Pub. L. 85-866, title I, Secs. 80, 81, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1662; Pub. L. 86-69, § 3(g), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 140; Pub. L. 86-780, § 3(c), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1013; Pub. L. 87-794, title III, § 317(c), Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 890; Pub. L. 87-834, § 2(e)(1), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 971; Pub. L. 87-858, § 3(b)(4), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1137; Pub. L. 88-272, title II, § 225(k)(6), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 94; Pub. L. 88-571, § 3(b), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 857; Pub. L. 89-44, title VIII, § 810(a), (b), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 169; Pub. L. 89-721, Secs. 2(f), 3(a), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1150, 1151; Pub. L. 89-809, title I, § 105(f)(3), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1568; Pub. L. 90-225, § 2(c), Dec. 27, 1967, 81 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 91-172, title I, § 101(g)(1)-(3), title V, § 512(e)(1), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 525, 639; Pub. L. 91-614, title I, § 102(d)(8), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1842; Pub. L. 92-178, title V, § 504(c), title VI, § 601(d)(1), (e)(2), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 551, 558, 560; Pub. L. 93-406, title II, § 1016(a)(14), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 94-455, title X, Secs. 1031(b)(5), 1035(d)(3), title XIII, Secs. 1302(b), 1307(d)(2)(F)(vi), title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A), title XXI, § 2107(g)(2)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1623, 1633, 1714, 1728, 1834, 1904; Pub. L. 95-30, title II, § 202(d)(4)(A), (5)(B), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 149, 151; Pub. L. 95-227, § 4(d)(4), (5), Feb. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 23; Pub. L. 95-600, title II, § 212(a), title III, § 321(b)(2), title V, § 504(b)(3), title VII, Secs. 701(t)(3)(A), 703(n), (p)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2818, 2835, 2881, 2912, 2943, 2944; Pub. L. 95-628, § 8(c)(1), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3631; Pub. L. 96-222, title I, Secs. 102(a)(2)(A), 103(a)(6)(G)(x), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 208, 210; Pub. L. 96-223, title I, § 101(g)(1), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 253; Pub. L. 97-248, title IV, § 402(c)(5), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 667; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title I, Secs. 131(d)(2), 163(b)(1), title II, § 211(b)(24), title III, § 314(a)(3), title IV, Secs. 447(a), 474(r)(39), title VII, § 714(p)(2)(F), title VIII, § 801(d)(14), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 664, 697, 757, 787, 817, 846, 965, 997; Pub. L. 99-514, title XVIII, Secs. 1810(g)(3), 1847(b)(12)-(14), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2828, 2857; Pub. L. 100-203, title X, Secs. 10712(c)(2), 10714(c), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330-467, 1330-471; Pub. L. 100-418, title I, § 1941(b)(2)(H), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, § 1008(j)(1), title IV, § 4008(c)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3445, 3653; Pub. L. 101-239, title VII, § 7814(e)(2)(E), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2414; Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, Secs. 11511(c)(2), 11602(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-485, 1388-500; Pub. L. 104-188, title I, Secs. 1702(e)(3), 1703(n)(8), 1704(j)(4)(B), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1870, 1877, 1882; Pub. L. 105-34, title V, § 506(b), title XI, § 1145(a), title XII, Secs. 1239(e)(2), 1284(a), title XVI, § 1601(g)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 855, 985, 1028, 1038, 1092; Pub. L. 105-206, title III, § 3461(b), title VI, Secs. 6007(e)(2)(A), 6023(27), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 764, 809, 826; P.L. 108-357, Title IV, § 413(c)(28), Title VIII, Subtitle B, Part I, § 814(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1509, 1581.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6501)


§ 6502. Collection after assessment

(a) Length of period.  Where the assessment of any tax imposed by this title has been made within the period of limitation properly applicable thereto, such tax may be collected by levy or by a proceeding in court, but only if the levy is made or the proceeding begun—

(1) within 10 years after the assessment of the tax, or

(2) if—

(A) there is an installment agreement between the taxpayer and the Secretary, prior to the date which is 90 days after the expiration of any period for collection agreed upon in writing by the Secretary and the taxpayer at the time the installment agreement was entered into; or

(B) there is a release of levy under section 6343 after such 10-year period, prior to the expiration of any period for collection agreed upon in writing by the Secretary and the taxpayer before such release. If a timely proceeding in court for the collection of a tax is commenced, the period during which such tax may be collected by levy shall be extended and shall not expire until the liability for the tax (or a judgment against the taxpayer arising from such liability) is satisfied or becomes unenforceable.

(b) Date when levy is considered made.  The date on which a levy on property or rights to property is made shall be the date on which the notice of seizure provided in section 6335 (a) is given.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 806; Pub. L. 89-719, title I, § 113(b), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1146; Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, § 1015(u)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3573; Pub. L. 101-239, title VII, § 7811(k)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2412; Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, § 11317(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-458; Pub. L. 105-206, title III, § 3461(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 764.)

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6502)


§ 6503. Suspension of running of period of limitation

(a) Issuance of statutory notice of deficiency.

(1) General rule. The running of the period of limitations provided in section 6501 or 6502 (or section 6229, but only with respect to a deficiency described in paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of section 6230(a)). on the making of assessments or the collection by levy or a proceeding in court, in respect of any deficiency as defined in section 6211 (relating to income, estate, gift and certain excise taxes), shall (after the mailing of a notice under section 6212(a)) be suspended for the period during which the Secretary is prohibited from making the assessment or from collecting by levy or a proceeding in court (and in any event, if a proceeding in respect of the deficiency is placed on the docket of the Tax Court, until the decision of the Tax Court becomes final), and for 60 days thereafter.

(2) Corporation joining in consolidated income tax return. If a notice under section 6212(a) in respect of a deficiency in tax imposed by subtitle A for any taxable year is mailed to a corporation, the suspension of the running of the period of limitations provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall apply in the case of corporations with which such corporation made a consolidated income tax return for such taxable year.

(b) Assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court. The period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in section 6502 shall be suspended for the period the assets of the taxpayer are in the control or custody of the court in any proceeding before any court of the United States or of any State or of the District of Columbia, and for 6 months thereafter.

(c) Taxpayer outside United States. The running of the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in section 6502 shall be suspended for the period during which the taxpayer is outside the United States if such period of absence is for a continuous period of at least 6 months. If the preceding sentence applies and at the time of the taxpayer's return to the United States the period of limitations on collection after assessment prescribed in section 6502 would expire before the expiration of 6 months from the date of his return, such period shall not expire before the expiration of such 6 months.

(d) Extensions of time for payment of estate tax. The running of the period of limitation for collection of any tax imposed by chapter 11 shall be suspended for the period of any extension of time for payment granted under the provisions of section 6161(a)(2) or (b)(2) or under the provisions of section 6163 or 6166.

(e) Extensions of time for payment of tax attributable to recoveries of foreign expropriation losses. The running of the period of limitations for collection of the tax attributable to a recovery of a foreign expropriation loss (within the meaning of section 6167(f)) shall be suspended for the period of any extension of time for payment under subsection (a) or (b) of section 6167.

(f) Wrongful seizure of or lien on property of third party.

(1) Wrongful seizure. The running of the period under section 6502 shall be suspended for a period equal to the period from the date property (including money) of a third party is wrongfully seized or received by the Secretary to the date the Secretary returns property pursuant to section 6343(b) or the date on which a judgment secured pursuant to section 7426 with respect to such property becomes final, and for 30 days thereafter. The running of such period shall be suspended under this paragraph only with respect to the amount of such assessment equal to the amount of money or the value of specific property returned.

(2) Wrongful lien. In the case of any assessment for which a lien was made on any property, the running of the period under section 6502 shall be suspended for a period equal to the period beginning on the date any person becomes entitled to a certificate under section 6325(b)(4) with respect to such property and ending on the date which is 30 days after the earlier of—

(A) the earliest date on which the Secretary no longer holds any amount as a deposit or bond provided under section 6325(b)(4) by reason of such deposit or bond being used to satisfy the unpaid tax or being refunded or released; or

(B) the date that the judgment secured under section 7426(b)(5) becomes final.

The running of such period shall be suspended under this paragraph only with respect to the amount of such assessment equal to the value of the interest of the United States in the property plus interest, penalties, additions to the tax, and additional amounts attributable thereto.

(g) Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations provided in sections 6501 and 6502 on the making of assessments or the collection by levy or a proceeding in court in respect of any tax imposed by chapter 42 or section 507, 4971, or 4975 shall be suspended for any period described in section 507(g)(2) or during which the Secretary has extended the time for making correction under section 4963(e).

(h) Cases under title 11 of the United States Code. The running of the period of limitations provided in section 6501 or 6502 on the making of assessments or collection shall, in a case under title 11 of the United States Code, be suspended for the period during which the Secretary is prohibited by reason of such case from making the assessment or from collecting and—

(1) for assessment, 60 days thereafter, and

(2) for collection, 6 months thereafter.

(i) Extension of time for payment of undistributed PFIC earnings tax liability. The running of any period of limitations for collection of any amount of undistributed PFIC earnings tax liability (as defined in section 1294(b)) shall be suspended for the period of any extension of time under section 1294 for payment of such amount.

(j) Extension in case of certain summonses.

(1) In general. If any designated summons is issued by the Secretary to a corporation (or to any other person to whom the corporation has transferred records) with respect to any return of tax by such corporation for a taxable year (or other period) for which such corporation is being examined under the coordinated examination program (or any successor program) of the Internal Revenue Service, the running of any period of limitations provided in section 6501 on the assessment of such tax shall be suspended—

(A) during any judicial enforcement period—

(i) with respect to such summons, or

(ii) with respect to any other summons which is issued during the 30-day period which begins on the date on which such designated summons is issued and which relates to the same return as such designated summons, and

(B) if the court in any proceeding referred to in paragraph (3) requires any compliance with a summons referred to in subparagraph (A), during the 120-day period beginning with the 1st day after the close of the suspension under subparagraph (A).

If subparagraph (B) does not apply, such period shall in no event expire before the 60th day after the close of the suspension under subparagraph (A).

(2) Designated summons. For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general. The term "designated summons" means any summons issued for purposes of determining the amount of any tax imposed by this title if—

(i) the issuance of such summons is preceded by a review of such issuance by the regional counsel of the Office of Chief Counsel for the region in which the examination of the corporation is being conducted,

(ii) such summons is issued at least 60 days before the day on which the period prescribed in section 6501 for the assessment of such tax expires (determined with regard to extensions), and

(iii) such summons clearly states that it is a designated summons for purposes of this subsection.

(B) Limitation. A summons which relates to any return shall not be treated as a designated summons if a prior summons which relates to such return was treated as a designated summons for purposes of this subsection.

(3) Judicial enforcement period. For purposes of this subsection, the term "judicial enforcement period" means, with respect to any summons, the period—

(A) which begins on the day on which a court proceeding with respect to such summons is brought, and

(B) which ends on the day on which there is a final resolution as to the summoned person's response to such summons.

(k) Cross references. For suspension in case of—

(1) Deficiency dividends of a personal holding company, see section 547(f).

(2) Receiverships, see subchapter B of chapter 70.

(3) Claims against transferees and fiduciaries, see chapter 71.

(4) Income tax return preparers, see section 6694(c)(3).

(5) Deficiency dividends in the case of a regulated investment company or a real estate investment trust, see section 860(h).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 806; Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1020, § 2, 70 Stat. 1075; Pub. L. 85-866, title II, § 206(d), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1685; Pub. L. 89-384, § 1(e), Apr. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 104; Pub. L. 89-719, title I, § 106, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1139; Pub. L. 91-172, title I, § 101(g)(4), (j)(46), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 525, 531; Pub. L. 93-406, title II, § 1016(a)(15), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 94-452, § 3(b), Oct. 2, 1976, 90 Stat. 1514; Pub. L. 94-455, title XII, § 1203(h)(1), title XVI, § 1601(f)(2), title XIX, § 1902(b)(2)(A), 1906(b)(13)(A), title XX, § 2004(c)(4), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1694, 1746, 1806, 1834, 1868; Pub. L. 95-227, § 4(d)(6), Feb. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 23; Pub. L. 95-600, title III, § 362(d)(5), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2852; Pub. L. 96-222, title I, § 108(b)(1)(A), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 226; Pub. L. 96-589, § 6(a), (i)(11), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3407, 3411; Pub. L. 96-596, § 2(a)(4)(D), (E), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3472; Pub. L. 97-34, title IV, § 422(e)(7), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 316; Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title III, § 305(b)(4), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 784; Pub. L. 99-514, title XII, § 1235(d), title XVIII, § 1875(d)(2)(B)(ii), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2575, 2896; Pub. L. 100-203, title X, § 10712(c)(3), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330-467; Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, § 11311(a), 11801(c)(20)(A), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-453, 1388-528; Pub. L. 104-168, title X, § 1002(a)-(c), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1468; Pub. L. 104-188, title I, § 1702(h)(17), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1874; Pub. L. 105-34, title XII, § 1237(c)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1026; Pub. L. 105-206, title III, § 3106(b)(3), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 734.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6503)


§ 6658. Coordination with title 11

(a) Certain failures to pay tax. No addition to the tax shall be made under section 6651, 6654, or 6655 for failure to make timely payment of tax with respect to a period during which a case is pending under title 11 of the United States Code—

(1) if such tax was incurred by the estate and the failure occurred pursuant to an order of the court finding probable insufficiency of funds of the estate to pay administrative expenses, or

(2) if—

(A) such tax was incurred by the debtor before the earlier of the order for relief or (in the involuntary case) the appointment of a trustee, and

(B)(i) the petition was filed before the due date prescribed by law (including extensions) for filing a return of such tax, or

(ii) the date for making the addition to the tax occurs on or after the day on which the petition was filed.

(b) Exception for collected taxes. Subsection (a) shall not apply to any liability for an addition to the tax which arises from the failure to pay or deposit a tax withheld or collected from others and required to be paid to the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 96-589, § 6(e)(1), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3408.)

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6658)


§ 6672. Failure to collect and pay over tax, or attempt to evade or defeat tax

(a) General rule. Any person required to collect, truthfully account for, and pay over any tax imposed by this title who willfully fails to collect such tax, or truthfully account for and pay over such tax, or willfully attempts in any manner to evade or defeat any such tax or the payment thereof, shall, in addition to other penalties provided by law, be liable to a penalty equal to the total amount of the tax evaded, or not collected, or not accounted for and paid over. No penalty shall be imposed under section 6653 or part II of subchapter A of chapter 68 for any offense to which this section is applicable.

(b) Preliminary notice requirement.

(1) In general. No penalty shall be imposed under subsection (a) unless the Secretary notifies the taxpayer in writing by mail to an address as determined under section 6212(b) or in person that the taxpayer shall be subject to an assessment of such penalty.

(2) Timing of notice. The mailing of the notice described in paragraph (1) (or, in the case of such a notice delivered in person, such delivery) shall precede any notice and demand of any penalty under subsection (a) by at least 60 days.

(3) Statute of limitations. If a notice described in paragraph (1) with respect to any penalty is mailed or delivered in person before the expiration of the period provided by section 6501 for the assessment of such penalty (determined without regard to this paragraph), the period provided by such section for the assessment of such penalty shall not expire before the later of—

(A) the date 90 days after the date on which such notice was mailed or delivered in person, or

(B) if there is a timely protest of the proposed assessment, the date 30 days after the Secretary makes a final administrative determination with respect to such protest.

(4) Exception for jeopardy. This subsection shall not apply if the Secretary finds that the collection of the penalty is in jeopardy.

(c) Extension of period of collection where bond is filed.

(1) In general. If, within 30 days after the day on which notice and demand of any penalty under subsection (a) is made against any person, such person—

(A) pays an amount which is not less than the minimum amount required to commence a proceeding in court with respect to his liability for such penalty,

(B) files a claim for refund of the amount so paid, and

(C) furnishes a bond which meets the requirements of paragraph (3),

no levy or proceeding in court for the collection of the remainder of such penalty shall be made, begun, or prosecuted until a final resolution of a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2). Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7421(a), the beginning of such proceeding or levy during the time such prohibition is in force may be enjoined by a proceeding in the proper court. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit any counterclaim for the remainder of such penalty in a proceeding begun as provided in paragraph (2).

(2) Suit must be brought to determine liability for penalty. If, within 30 days after the day on which his claim for refund with respect to any penalty under subsection (a) is denied, the person described in paragraph (1) fails to begin a proceeding in the appropriate United States district court (or in the Court of Claims) for the determination of his liability for such penalty, paragraph (1) shall cease to apply with respect to such penalty, effective on the day following the close of the 30-day period referred to in this paragraph.

(3) Bond. The bond referred to in paragraph (1) shall be in such form and with such sureties as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe and shall be in an amount equal to 1 1/2 times the amount of excess of the penalty assessed over the payment described in paragraph (1).

(4) Suspension of running of period of limitations on collection. The running of the period of limitations provided in section 6502 on the collection by levy or by a proceeding in court in respect of any penalty described in paragraph (1) shall be suspended for the period during which the Secretary is prohibited from collecting by levy or a proceeding in court.

(5) Jeopardy collection. If the Secretary makes a finding that the collection of the penalty is in jeopardy, nothing in this subsection shall prevent the immediate collection of such penalty.

(d) Right of contribution where more than 1 person liable for penalty. If more than 1 person is liable for the penalty under subsection (a) with respect to any tax, each person who paid such penalty shall be entitled to recover from other persons who are liable for such penalty an amount equal to the excess of the amount paid by such person over such person's proportionate share of the penalty.

Any claim for such a recovery may be made only in a proceeding which is separate from, and is not joined or consolidated with—

(1) an action for collection of such penalty brought by the United States, or

(2) a proceeding in which the United States files a counterclaim or third-party complaint for the collection of such penalty.

(e) Exception for voluntary board members of tax-exempt organizations. No penalty shall be imposed by subsection (a) on any unpaid, volunteer member of any board of trustees or directors of an organization exempt from tax under subtitle A if such member—

(1) is solely serving in an honorary capacity,

(2) does not participate in the day-to-day or financial operations of the organization, and

(3) does not have actual knowledge of the failure on which such penalty is imposed.

The preceding sentence shall not apply if it results in no person being liable for the penalty imposed by subsection (a).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 828; Pub. L. 95-628, § 9(a), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3633; Pub. L. 101-239, title VII, § 7721(c)(9), 7737(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2400, 2404; Pub. L. 104-168, title IX, § 901(a), 903(a), 904(a), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1465-1467; Pub. L. 105-206, title III, § 3307(a), (b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 744.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 6672)


§ 7425. Discharge of liens

(a) Judicial proceedings. If the United States is not joined as a party, a judgment in any civil action or suit described in subsection (a) of section 2410 of title 28 of the United States Code, or a judicial sale pursuant to such a judgment, with respect to property on which the United States has or claims a lien under the provisions of this title—

(1) shall be made subject to and without disturbing the lien of the United States, if notice of such lien has been filed in the place provided by law for such filing at the time such action or suit is commenced, or

(2) shall have the same effect with respect to the discharge or divestment of such lien of the United States as may be provided with respect to such matters by the local law of the place where such property is situated, if no notice of such lien has been filed in the place provided by law for such filing at the time such action or suit is commenced or if the law makes no provision for such filing.

If a judicial sale of property pursuant to a judgment in any civil action or suit to which the United States is not a party discharges a lien of the United States arising under the provisions of this title, the United States may claim, with the same priority as its lien had against the property sold, the proceeds (exclusive of costs) of such sale at any time before the distribution of such proceeds is ordered.

(b) Other sales. Notwithstanding subsection (a) sale of property on which the United States has or claims a lien, or a title derived from enforcement of a lien, under the provisions of this title, made pursuant to an instrument creating a lien on such property, pursuant to a confession of judgment on the obligation secured by such an instrument, or pursuant to a nonjudicial sale under a statutory lien on such property—

(1) shall, except as otherwise provided, be made subject to and without disturbing such lien or title, if notice of such lien was filed or such title recorded in the place provided by law for such filing or recording more than 30 days before such sale and the United States is not given notice of such sale in the manner prescribed in subsection (c)(1); or

(2) shall have the same effect with respect to the discharge or divestment of such lien or such title of the United States, as may be provided with respect to such matters by the local law of the place where such property is situated, if—

(A) notice of such lien or such title was not filed or recorded in the place provided by law for such filing more than 30 days before such sale,

(B) the law makes no provision for such filing, or

(C) notice of such sale is given in the manner prescribed in subsection (c)(1).

(c) Special rules

(1) Notice of sale. Notice of a sale to which subsection (b) applies shall be given (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary) in writing, by registered or certified mail or by personal service, not less than 25 days prior to such sale, to the Secretary.

(2) Consent to sale. Notwithstanding the notice requirement of subsection (b)(2)(C), a sale described in subsection (b) of property shall discharge or divest such property of the lien or title of the United States if the United States consents to the sale of such property free of such lien or title.

(3) Sale of perishable goods. Notwithstanding the notice requirement of subsection (b)(2)(C), a sale described in subsection (b) of property liable to perish or become greatly reduced in price or value by keeping, or which cannot be kept without great expense, shall discharge or divest such property of the lien or title of the United States if notice of such sale is given (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary) in writing, by registered or certified mail or by personal service, to the Secretary before such sale. The proceeds (exclusive of costs) of such sale shall be held as a fund subject to the liens and claims of the United States, in the same manner and with the same priority as such liens and claims had with respect to the property sold, for not less than 30 days after the date of such sale.

(4) Forfeitures of land sales contracts. For purposes of subsection (b), a sale of property includes any forfeiture of a land sales contract.

(d) Redemption by United States

(1) Right to redeem. In the case of a sale of real property to which subsection (b) applies to satisfy a lien prior to that of the United States, the Secretary may redeem such property within the period of 120 days from the date of such sale or the period allowable for redemption under local law, whichever is longer.

(2) Amount to be paid. In any case in which the United States redeems real property pursuant to paragraph (1), the amount to be paid for such property shall be the amount prescribed by subsection (d) of section 2410 of title 28 of the United States Code.

(3) Certificate of redemption

(A) In general. In any case in which real property is redeemed by the United States pursuant to this subsection, the Secretary shall apply to the officer designated by local law, if any, for the documents necessary to evidence the fact of redemption and to record title to such property in the name of the United States. If no such officer is designated by local law or if such officer fails to issue such documents, the Secretary shall execute a certificate of redemption therefor.

(B) Filing. The Secretary shall, without delay, cause such documents or certificate to be duly recorded in the proper registry of deeds. If the State in which the real property redeemed by the United States is situated has not by law designated an office in which such certificate may be recorded, the Secretary shall file such certificate in the office of the clerk of the United States district court for the judicial district in which such property is situated.

(C) Effect. A certificate of redemption executed by the Secretary shall constitute prima facie evidence of the regularity of such redemption and shall, when recorded, transfer to the United States all the rights, title, and interest in and to such property acquired by the person from whom the United States redeems such property by virtue of the sale of such property.

(Added Pub. L. 89-719, title I, § 109, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1141; amended Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 99-514, title XV, § 1572(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2765.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 7425)


§ 7433. Civil damages for certain unauthorized collection actions

(a) In general. If, in connection with any collection of Federal tax with respect to a taxpayer, any officer or employee of the Internal Revenue Service recklessly or intentionally, or by reason of negligence, disregards any provision of this title, or any regulation promulgated under this title, such taxpayer may bring a civil action for damages against the United States in a district court of the United States. Except as provided in section 7432, such civil action shall be the exclusive remedy for recovering damages resulting from such actions.

(b) Damages. In any action brought under subsection (a) or petition filed under subsection (e), upon a finding of liability on the part of the defendant, the defendant shall be liable to the plaintiff in an amount equal to the lesser of $1,000,000 ($100,000, in the case of negligence) or the sum of—

(1) actual, direct economic damages sustained by the plaintiff as a proximate result of the reckless or intentional or negligent actions of the officer or employee, and

(2) the costs of the action.

(c) Payment authority. Claims pursuant to this section shall be payable out of funds appropriated under section 1304 of title 31, United States Code.

(d) Limitations

(1) Requirement that administrative remedies be exhausted. A judgment for damages shall not be awarded under subsection (b) unless the court determines that the plaintiff has exhausted the administrative remedies available to such plaintiff within the Internal Revenue Service.

(2) Mitigation of damages. The amount of damages awarded under subsection (b)(1) shall be reduced by the amount of such damages which could have reasonably been mitigated by the plaintiff.

(3) Period for bringing action. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an action to enforce liability created under this section may be brought without regard to the amount in controversy and may be brought only within 2 years after the date the right of action accrues.

(e) Actions for violations of certain bankruptcy procedures.

(1) In general. If, in connection with any collection of Federal tax with respect to a taxpayer, any officer or employee of the Internal Revenue Service willfully violates any provision of section 362 (relating to automatic stay) or 524 (relating to effect of discharge) of title 11, United States Code (or any successor provision), or any regulation promulgated under such provision, such taxpayer may petition the bankruptcy court to recover damages against the United States.

(2) Remedy to be exclusive.

(A) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (B), notwithstanding section 105 of such title 11, such petition shall be the exclusive remedy for recovering damages resulting from such actions.

(B) Certain other actions permitted. Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to an action under section 362(h) of such title 11 for a violation of a stay provided by section 362 of such title; except that—

(i) administrative and litigation costs in connection with such an action may only be awarded under section 7430; and

(ii) administrative costs may be awarded only if incurred on or after the date that the bankruptcy petition is filed.

(Added Pub. L. 100-647, title VI, § 6241(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3747; amended Pub. L. 104-168, title VIII, § 801(a), 802(a), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1465; Pub. L. 105-206, title III, § 3102(a), (c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 730.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (26 U.S.C. § 7433)


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