BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (CH. 11 — CONTENTS)

BAPCPA § 321(a)(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 436(b)    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1101)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section contains definitions of three terms that are used in chapter 11. Paragraph (1) defines debtor in possession to mean the debtor, except when a trustee who has qualified in serving in the case. 

Paragraph (2), derived from section 229a of current law (section 629(a) of former title 11), defines substantial consummation

Substantial consummation of a plan occurs when transfer of all or substantially all of the property proposed by the plan to be transferred is actually transferred; when the debtor (or its successor) has assumed the business of the debtor or the management of all or substantially all of the property dealt with by the plan; and when distribution under the plan has commenced. 

Paragraph (3) defines for purposes of Chapter 11 a public company to mean "a debtor who, within 12 months prior to the filing of a petition for relief under this chapter, had outstanding liabilities of $5 million or more, exclusive of liabilities for goods, services, or taxes and not less than 1,000 security holders." There are, as noted, special safeguards for public investors related to the reorganization of a public company, as so defined. 

Both requirements must be met: liabilities, excluding tax obligations and trade liabilities, must be $5 million or more; and (2) the number of holders of securities, debt or equity, or both, must be not less than 1,000. The amount and number are to be determined as of any time within 12 months prior to the filing of the petition for reorganization. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1102)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1102(a) of the House amendment adopts a compromise between the House bill and Senate amendment requiring appointment of a committee of creditors holding unsecured claims by the court; the alternative of creditor committee election is rejected. 

Section 1102(b) of the House amendment represents a compromise between the House bill and the Senate amendment by preventing the appointment of creditors who are unwilling to serve on a creditors committee. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835.

1986 Acts (Pub. L. 99-554). House Report No. 99-764 and House Conference Report No. 99-958. 

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section provides for the election and appointment of committees. Subsection (c) provides that this section does not apply in case of a public company, as to which a trustee, appointed under section 1104(a) will have responsibility to administer the estate and to formulate a plan as provided in section 1106(a)

There is no need for the election or appointment of committees for which the appointment of a trustee is mandatory. In the case of a public company there are likely to be several committees, each representing a different class of security holders and seeking authority to retain accountants, lawyers, and other experts, who will expect to be paid. If in the case of a public company creditors or stockholders wish to organize committees, they may do so, as authorized under section 1109(a). Compensation and reimbursement will be allowed for contributions to the reorganization pursuant to section 503(b)(3) and (4)

House Report No. 95-595. This section provides for the appointment of creditors' and equity security holders' committees, which will be the primary negotiating bodies for the formulation of the plan of reorganization. They will represent the various classes of creditors and equity security holders from which they are selected. They will also provide supervision of the debtor in possession and of the trustee, and will protect their constituents' interests. 

Subsection (a) requires the court to appoint at least one committee. That committee is to be composed of creditors holding unsecured claims. The court is authorized to appoint such additional committees as are necessary to assure adequate representation of creditors and equity security holders. The provision will be relied upon in cases in which the debtor proposes to affect several classes of debt or equity holders under the plan, and in which they need representation. 

Subsection (b) contains precatory language directing the court to appoint the persons holding the seven largest claims against the debtor of the kinds represented on a creditors' committee, or the members of a prepetition committee organized by creditors before the order for relief under chapter 11. The court may continue prepetition committee members only if the committee was fairly chosen and is representative of the different kinds of claims to be represented. The court is restricted to the appointment of persons in order to exclude governmental holders of claims or interests. 

Paragraph (2) of subsection (b) requires similar treatment for equity security holders' committees. The seven largest holders are normally to be appointed, but the language is only precatory. 

Subsection (c) authorizes the court, on request of a party in interest, to change the size or the membership of a creditors' or equity security holders' committee if the membership of the committee is not representative of the different kinds of claims or interests to be represented. This subsection is intended, along with the nonbinding nature of subsection (b), to afford the court latitude in appointing a committee that is manageable and representative in light of the circumstances of the case. 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1994 — Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-394 substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (3), as" for "As" in par. (1) and added par. (3). 

1986

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 221(1), amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting "chapter 11 of this title, the United States trustee shall appoint a committee of creditors holding unsecured claims and may appoint additional committees of creditors or of equity security holders as the United States trustee deems appropriate" for "this chapter, the court shall appoint a committee of creditors holding unsecured claims" in par. (1) and "United States trustee" for "court" in par. (2)

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 221(2), struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows: "On request of a party in interest and after notice and a hearing, the court may change the membership or the size of a committee appointed under subsection (a) of this section if the membership of such committee is not representative of the different kinds of claims or interests to be represented."

1984 — Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98-353 substituted "commencement of the case" for "order for relief ". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

1994 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

1986 Acts. Effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 99-554 dependent upon the judicial district involved, see section 302(d), (e) of Pub. L. 99-554, set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 101, 328, 348, 503, 901, 1103, 1114 of this title. 


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1102)

BAPCPA § 405(a)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 405(b)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 432(b)    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1103)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section defines the powers and duties of a committee elected or appointed under section 1102

Under subsection (a) the committee may, if authorized by the court, employ one or more attorneys, accountants, or other agents to represent or perform services for the committee. Normally one attorney should suffice; more than one may be authorized for good cause. The same considerations apply to the services of others, if the need for any at all is demonstrated. 

Under subsections (c) and (d) the committee, like any party in interest, may confer with the trustee or debtor regarding the administration of the estate; may advise the court on the need for a trustee under section 1104(b). The committee may investigate matters specified in paragraph (2) of subsection (c), but only if authorized by the court and if no trustee or examiner is appointed. 

House Report No. 95-595. Subsection (a) of this section authorizes a committee appointed under section 1102 to select and authorize the employment of counsel, accountantss, or other agents, to represent or perform services for the committee. The committee's selection and authorization is subject to the court's approval, and may only be done at a meeting of the committee at which a majority of its members are present. The subsection provides for the employment of more than one attorney. However, this will be the exception, and not the rule; cause must be shown to depart from the normal standard. 

Subsection (b) requires a committee's counsel to cease representation of any other entity in connection with the case after he begins to represent the committee. This will prevent the potential of severe conflicts of interest. 

Subsection (c) lists a committee's functions in a chapter 11 case. The committee may consult with the trustee or debtor in possession concerning the administration of the case, may investigate the acts, conduct, assets, liabilities and financial condition of the debtor, the operation of the debtor's business, and the desirability of the continuance of the business, and any other matter relevant to the case or to the formulation of a plan. 

The committee may participate in the formulation of a plan, advise those it represents of the committee's recommendation with respect to any plan formulated, and collect and file acceptances. These will be its most important functions. The committee may also determine the need for the appointment of a trustee, if one has not previously been appointed, and perform such other services as are in the interest of those represented. 

Subsection (d) requires the trustee and each committee to meet as soon as practicable after their appointments to transact such business as may be necessary and proper. 

AMENDMENTS

1984

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 324, 500(a), substituted "An attorney or accountant" for "A person", substituted "entity having an adverse interest" for "entity", and inserted provision that representation of one or more creditors of the same class as represented by the committee shall not per se constitute the representation of an adverse interest. 

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 500(b)(1), substituted "determinations" for "recommendations", and "acceptances or rejections" for "acceptances". 

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 500(b)(2), struck out "if a trustee or examiner, as the case may be, has not previously been appointed under this chapter in the case" after "section 1104 of this title". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 328, 330, 331, 901, 1114 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1104)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1104 of the House amendment represents a compromise between the House bill and the Senate amendment concerning the appointment of a trustee or examiner. The method of appointment rather than election, is derived from the House bill; the two alternative standards of appointment are derived with modifications from the Senate amendment, instead of the standard stated in the House bill. For example, if the current management of the debtor gambled away rental income before the filing of the petition, a trustee should be appointed after the petition, whether or not postpetition mismanagement can be shown. However, under no circumstances will cause include the number of security holders of the debtor or the amount of assets or liabilities of the debtor. The standard also applies to the appointment of an examiner in those circumstances in which mandatory appointment, as previously detailed, is not required. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835.

1986 Acts (Pub. L. 99-554). House Report No. 99-764 and House Conference Report No. 99-958. 

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. Subsection (a) provides for the mandatory appointment of a disinterested trustee in the case of a public company, as defined in section 1101(3), within 10 days of the order for relief, or of a successor, in the event of a vacancy, as soon as practicable. 

Section 156 of chapter X ((former) 11 U.S.C. 516 (556)) requires the appointment of a disinterested trustee if the debtor's liabilities are $250,000 or over. Section 1104(a) marks a substantial change. The appointment of a trustee is mandatory only for a public company, which under section 1101(3), has $5 million in liabilities, excluding tax and trade obligations, and 1,000 security holders. In view of past experience, cases involving public companies will under normal circumstances probably be relatively few in number but of vast importance in terms of public investor interest. 

In case of a nonpublic company, the appointment or election of a trustee is discretionary if the interests of the estate and its security holders would be served thereby. A test based on probable costs and benefits of a trusteeship is not practical. The appointment may be made at any time prior to confirmation of the plan. 

In case of a nonpublic company, if no trustee is appointed, the court may under subsection (c) appoint an examiner, if the appointment would serve the interests of the estate and security holders. The purpose of his appointment is specified in section 1106(b)

House Report No. 95-595. Subsection (a) of this section governs the appointment of trustees in reorganization cases. The court is permitted to order the appointment of one trustee at any time after the commencement of the case if a party in interest so requests. The court may order appointment only if the protection afforded by a trustee is needed and the costs and expenses of a trustee would not be disproportionately higher than the value of the protection afforded. 

The protection afforded by a trustee would be needed, for example, in cases where the current management of the debtor has been fraudulent or dishonest, or has grossly mismanaged the company, or where the debtor's management has abandoned the business. A trustee would not necessarily be needed to investigate misconduct of former management of the debtor, because an examiner appointed under this section might well be able to serve that function adequately without displacing the current management. Generally, a trustee would not be needed in any case where the protection afforded by a trustee could equally be afforded by an examiner. Though the device of examiner appears in current chapter X (chapter 10 of former title 11), it is rarely used because of the nearly absolute presumption in favor of the appointment of a trustee. Its use here will give the courts, debtors, creditors, and equity security holders greater flexibility in handling the affairs of an insolvent debtor, permitting the court to tailor the remedy to the case. 

The second test, relating to the costs and expenses of a trustee, is not intended to be a strict cost/benefit analysis. It is included to require the court to have due regard for any additional costs or expenses that the appointment of a trustee would impose on the estate. 

Subsection (b) permits the court, at any time after the commencement of the case and on request of a party in interest, to order the appointment of an examiner, if the court has not ordered the appointment of a trustee. The examiner would be appointed to conduct such an investigation of the debtor as is appropriate under the particular circumstances of the case, including an investigation of any allegations of fraud, dishonesty, or gross mismanagement of the debtor of or by current or former management of the debtor. The standards for the appointment of an examiner are the same as those for the appointment of a trustee: the protection must be needed, and the costs and expenses must not be disproportionately high. 

By virtue of proposed 11 U.S.C. 1109, an indenture trustee and the Securities and Exchange Commission will be parties in interest for the purpose of requesting the appointment of a trustee or examiner. 

Subsection (c) directs that the United States trustee actually select and appoint the trustee or examiner ordered appointed under this section. The United States trustee is required to consult with various parties in interest before selecting and appointing a trustee. He is not bound to select one of the members of the panel of private trustees established under proposed 28 U.S.C. 586(a)(1) which exists only for the purpose of providing trustees for chapter 7 cases. Neither is he precluded from selecting a panel member if the member is qualified to serve as chapter 11 trustee. Appointment by the United States trustee will remove the court from the often criticized practice of appointing an officer that will appear in litigation before the court against an adverse party. 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1994

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 211(a)(2), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c). 

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 211(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d). 

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 211(a)(1), 501(d)(30), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d) and inserted comma after "interest". 

1986

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 222(1), (2), inserted "or the United States trustee" after "party in interest". 

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 222(3), substituted "the United States trustee, after consultation with parties in interest shall appoint, subject to the court's approval, one disinterested person other than the United States trustee to serve" for "the court shall appoint one disinterested person to serve". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

Pub. L. 109-8, Title XIV, § 1405, added section 1104(e) requires the United States trustee to  move for the appointment of a trustee if there are reasonable grounds to suspect that current members of the governing body of the debtor participated in actual fraud, dishonesty, or criminal conduct in the management of the debtor or the debtor's public financial reporting.  Pub. L. 109-8, Title XIV, § 1406(b)(1)  provided that the amendments made by Pub. L. 109-8, Title XIV, apply with respect to cases commenced on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.

1994 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

1986 Acts. Effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 99-554 dependent upon the judicial district involved, see section 302(d), (e) of Pub. L. 99-554, set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 322, 546, 557, 1103, 1106, 1161 of this title. 


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1104)

BAPCPA § 416(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 416(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 442(b)(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 442(b)(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 442(b)(3)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 1405    •    House Report 109-31    •    BAPCPA § 1406 contains the following uncodified provision:

(a) Effective Date.—Except as provided in subsection (b), this title and the amendments made by this title shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.

(b) Application of Amendments.—    •   

(1) In General.—cept as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this title shall apply only with respect to cases commenced under title 11 of the United States Code on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.

(2) Avoidance Period.—The amendment made by section 1402(1) shall apply only with respect to cases commenced under title 11 of the United States Code more than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act. 


 So in the original.  Should probably read "Except".    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1105)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1986 Acts (Pub. L. 99-554). House Report No. 99-764 and House Conference Report No. 99-958.

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section authorizes the court to terminate the trustee's appointment and to restore the debtor to possession and management of the property of the estate and to operation of the debtor's business. Section 1104(a) provides that this section does not apply in the case of a public company, for which the appointment of a trustee is mandatory. 

House Report No. 95-595. This section authorizes the court to terminate the trustee's appointment and to restore the debtor to possession and management of the property of the estate, and to operation of the debtor's business. This section would permit the court to reverse its decision to order the appointment of a trustee in light of new evidence. 

AMENDMENTS

1986 — Pub. L. 99-554 inserted "or the United States trustee" after "party in interest". 

1984 — Pub. L. 98-353 substituted "estate and of the" for "estate, and". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

1986 Acts. Effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 99-554 dependent upon the judicial district involved, see section 302(d), (e) of Pub. L. 99-554, set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1161 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1106)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31.

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835.

1986 Acts (Pub. L. 99-554). House Report No. 99-764 and House Conference Report No. 99-958.

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. Subsection (a) of this section prescribes the trustee's duties. He is required to perform the duties of a trustee in a liquidation case specified in section 704 (2), (4), (6), (7), (8), and (9). These include reporting and informational duties, and accountability for all property received. Paragraph (2) of this subsection requires the trustee to file with the court, if the debtor has not done so, the list of creditors, schedule of assets and liabilities, and statement of affairs required under section 521(1)

Paragraph (3) of S. 1106 requires the trustee to investigate the acts, conduct, assets, liabilities, and financial condition of the debtor, the operation of the debtor's business, and the desirability of the continuance of the business, and any other matter relevant to the case or to the formulation of a plan. Paragraph (4) requires the trustee to report the results of his investigation to the court and to creditors' committees, equity security holders' committees, indenture trustees and any other entity the court designates. 

Paragraph (5) requires the trustee to file a plan or to report why a plan cannot be formulated, or to recommend conversion to liquidation or to an individual repayment plan case, or dismissal. It is anticipated that the trustee will consult with creditors and other parties in interest in the formulation of a plan, just as the debtor in possession would. 

Paragraph (6) (enacted as (7)) requires final reports by the trustee, as the court orders. 

Subsection (b) gives the trustee's investigative duties to an examiner, if one is appointed. The court is authorized to give the examiner additional duties as the circumstances warrant. 

Paragraphs (3), (4), and (5) of subsection (a) are derived from sections 165 and 169 of chapter X (sections 565 and 569 of former title 11). 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1994 — Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-394 substituted "1104(d)" for "1104(c)". 

1986 — Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 99-554 inserted reference to chapter 12. 

1984

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 311(b)(1), substituted "704(5), 704(7), 704(8), and 704(9)" for "704(4), 704(6), 704(7) and 704(8)". 

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 502, inserted ", except to the extent that the court orders otherwise,". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

1994 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

1986 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 99-554 effective 30 days after Oct. 27, 1986, but not applicable to cases commenced under this title before that date, see section 302(a), (c)(1) of Pub. L. 99-554, set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101of this title. 

PAYMENT OF CERTAIN BENEFITS TO RETIRED FORMER EMPLOYEES

Pub. L. 99-500, Sec. 101(b) (title VI, Sec. 608), Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783-39, 1783-74, and Pub. L. 99-591, Sec. 101(b) (title VI, Sec. 608), Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341-39, 3341-74, as amended by Pub. L. 100-41, May 15, 1987, 101 Stat. 309; Pub. L. 100-99, Aug. 18, 1987, 101 Stat. 716; Pub. L. 100-334, Sec. 3(a), June 16, 1988, 102 Stat. 613, provided that: 

"(a)(1) Subject to paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5), and notwithstanding title 11 of the United States Code, the trustee shall pay benefits to retired former employees under a plan, fund, or program maintained or established by the debtor prior to filing a petition (through the purchase of insurance or otherwise) for the purpose of providing medical, surgical, or hospital care benefits, or benefits in the event of sickness, accident, disability, or death. 

"(2) The level of benefits required to be paid by this subsection may be modified prior to confirmation of a plan under section 1129 of such title if — "(A) the trustee and an authorized representative of the former employees with respect to whom such benefits are payable agree to the modification of such benefit payments; or "(B) the court finds that a modification proposed by the trustee meets the standards of section 1113(b)(1)(A) of such title and the balance of the equities clearly favors the modification. 

If such benefits are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, the authorized representative shall be the labor organization that is signatory to such collective bargaining agreement unless there is a conflict of interest. 

"(3) The trustee shall pay benefits in accordance with this subsection until—

"(A) the dismissal of the case involved; or 

"(B) the effective date of a plan confirmed under section 1129 of such title which provides for the continued payment after confirmation of the plan of all such benefits at the level established under paragraph (2) of this subsection, at any time prior to the confirmation of the plan, for the duration of the period the debtor (as defined in such title) has obligated itself to provide such benefits. 

"(4) No such benefits paid between the filing of a petition in a case covered by this section and the time a plan confirmed under section 1129 of such title with respect to such case becomes effective shall be deducted or offset from the amount allowed as claims for any benefits which remain unpaid, or from the amount to be paid under the plan with respect to such claims for unpaid benefits, whether such claims for unpaid benefits are based upon or arise from a right to future benefits or from any benefit not paid as a result of modifications allowed pursuant to this section. 

"(5) No claim for benefits covered by this section shall be limited by section 502(b)(7) of such title.

"(b)(1) Notwithstanding any provision of title 11 of the United States Code, the trustee shall pay an allowable claim of any person for a benefit paid— 

"(A) before the filing of the petition under title 11 of the United States Code; and

"(B) directly or indirectly to a retired former employee under a plan, fund, or program described in subsection (a)(1); if, as determined by the court, such person is entitled to recover from such employee, or any provider of health care to such employee, directly or indirectly, the amount of such benefit for which such person receives no payment from the debtor

"(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term 'provider of health care' means a person who— 

"(A) is the direct provider of health care (including a physician, dentist, nurse, podiatrist, optometrist, physician assistant, or ancillary personnel employed under the supervision of a physician); or

"(B) administers a facility or institution (including a hospital, alcohol and drug abuse treatment facility, outpatient facility, or health maintenance organization) in which health care is provided. 

"(c) This section is effective with respect to cases commenced under chapter 11, of title 11, United States Code, in which a plan for reorganization has not been confirmed by the court and in which any such benefit is still being paid on October 2, 1986, and in cases that become subject to chapter 11, title 11, United States Code, after October 2, 1986 and before the date of the enactment of the Retiree Benefits Bankruptcy Protection Act of 1988 (June 16, 1988). 

"(d) This section shall not apply during any period in which a case is subject to chapter 7, title 11, United States Code." Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 99-656, Sec. 2, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3668, as amended by Pub. L. 100-41, May 15, 1987, 101 Stat. 309; Pub. L. 100-99, Aug. 18, 1987, 101 Stat. 716, and were repealed by Pub. L. 100-334, Sec. 3(b), June 16, 1988, 102 Stat. 614. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 1107, 1111, 1202, 1203, 1301 of this title. 


FOOTNOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1106)

42 U.S.C. §§ 664 and 666    •   

[SIC]  There are no BC §§ 704(2), (5), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11) or (12).  BAPCPA § 102(c)(1) inserted an "(a)" before "The trustee shall—" in the existing BC § 704.  The probable intent is a reference to BC §§ 704(a)(2), (a)(5), (a)(7), (a)(8), (a)(9), (a)(10), (a)(11) and or (a)(12), as amended by BAPCPA § 102(c)(1).    •   


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1106)

BAPCPA§ 219(b)(1)(A)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA§ 219(b)(1)(B)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA§ 219(b)(1)(C)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA§ 219(b)(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA§ 446(c)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA§ 1105(b)    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1107)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

The House amendment adopts section 1107(b) of the Senate amendment which clarifies a point not covered by the House bill. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section places a debtor in possession in the shoes of a trustee in every way. The debtor is given the rights and powers of a chapter 11 trustee. He is required to perform the functions and duties of a chapter 11 trustee (except the investigative duties). He is also subject to any limitations on a chapter 11 trustee, and to such other limitations and conditions as the court prescribes cf. Wolf v. Weinstein, 372 U.S. 633, 649-650 (1963). 

AMENDMENTS

1984 — Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-353 substituted "on a trustee serving in a case" for "on a trustee". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 106, 328, 1161 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1108)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

The House amendment adopts section 1108 of the House bill in preference to the style of an identical substantive provision contained in the Senate amendment. Throughout title 11 references to a "trustee" is read to include other parties under various sections of the bill. For example, section 1107 applies to give the debtor in possession all the rights and powers of a trustee in a case under chapter 11; this includes the power of the trustee to operate the debtor's business under section 1108

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section permits the debtor's business to continue to be operated, unless the court orders otherwise. Thus, in a reorganization case, operation of the business will be the rule, and it will not be necessary to go to the court to obtain an order authorizing operation. 

House Report No. 95-595. This section does not presume that a trustee will be appointed to operate the business of the debtor. Rather, the power granted to trustee under this section is one of the powers that a debtor in possession acquires by virtue of proposed 11 U.S.C. 1107

AMENDMENTS

1984 — Pub. L. 98-353 inserted ", on request of a party in interest and after notice and a hearing,". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

 1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 327, 363, 364 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1109)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1109 of the House amendment represents a compromise between comparable provisions in the House bill and Senate amendment. As previously discussed the section gives the Securities and Exchange Commission the right to appear and be heard and to raise any issue in a case under chapter 11; however, the Securities and Exchange Commission is not a party in interest and the Commission may not appeal from any judgment, order, or decree entered in the case. Under section 1109(b) a party in interest, including the debtor, the trustee, creditors committee, equity securities holders committee, a creditor, an equity security holders, or an indentured trustee, may raise and may appear and be heard on any issue in a case under chapter 11. Section 1109(c) of the Senate amendment has been moved to subchapter IV pertaining to Railroad Reorganizations. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. Subsection (a) provides, in unqualified terms, that any creditor, equity security holders, or an indenture trustee shall have the right to be heard as a party in interest under this chapter in person, by an attorney, or by a committee. It is derived from section 206 of chapter X ((former) 11 U.S.C. 606). 

Subsection (b) provides that the Securities and Exchange Commission may appear by filing an appearance in a case of a public company and may appear in other cases if authorized or requested by the court. As a party in interest in either case, the Commission may raise and be heard on any issue. The Commission may not appeal from a judgment, order, or decree in a case, but may participate in any appeal by any other party in interest. This is the present law under section 208 of chapter X ((former) 11 U.S.C. 608). 

House Report No. 95-595. Section 1109 authorizes the Securities and Exchange Commission and any indenture trustee to intervene in the case at any time on any issue. They may raise an issue or may appear and be heard on an issue that is raised by someone else. The section, following current law, denies the right of appeal to the Securities and Exchange Commission. It does not, however, prevent the Commission from joining or participating in an appeal taken by a true party in interest. The Commission is merely prevented from initiating the appeal in any capacity. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 901 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1110)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1110 of the House amendment adopts an identical provision contained in the House bill without modifications contained in the Senate amendment. This section protects a limited class of financiers of aircraft and vessels and is intended to be narrowly construed to prevent secured parties or lessors from gaining the protection of the section unless the interest of such lessor or secured party is explicitly enumerated therein. It should be emphasized that under section 1110(a) a debtor in possession or trustee is given 60 days after the order for relief in a case under chapter 11, to have an opportunity to comply with the provisions of section 1110(a)

During this time the automatic stay will apply and may not be lifted prior to the expiration of the 60-day period. Under section 1110(b), the debtor and secured party or lessor are given an opportunity to extend the 60-day period, but no right to reduce the period is intended. It should additionally be noted that under section 1110(a) the trustee or debtor in possession is not required to assume the executory contract or unexpired lease under section 1110; rather, if the trustee or debtor in possession complies with the requirements of section 1110(a), the trustee or debtor in possession is entitled to retain the aircraft or vessels subject to the normal requirements of section 365. The discussion regarding aircraft and vessels likewise applies with respect to railroad rolling stock in a railroad reorganization under section 1168. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2000 Acts (Pub. L. 106-181). House Conference Report No. 106-513.

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835 and House Report No. 103-180. 

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section, to a large degree, preserves the protection given lessors and conditional vendors of aircraft to a certificated air carrier or of vessels to a certificated water carrier under section 116(5) and 116(6) of present Chapter X (section 516(5) and (6) of former title 11). It is modified to conform with the consolidation of Chapters X and XI (chapters 10 and 11 of former title 11) and with the new chapter 11 generally. It is also modified to give the trustee in a reorganization case an opportunity to continue in possession of the equipment in question by curing defaults and by making the required lease or purchase payments. This removes the absolute veto power over a reorganization that lessors and conditional vendors have under present law, while entitling them to protection of their investment. 

The section overrides the automatic stay or any power of the court to enjoin taking of possession of certain leased, conditionally sold, or liened equipment, unless, the trustee agrees to perform the debtor's obligations and cures all prior defaults (other than defaults under ipso facto or bankruptcy clauses) within 60 days after the order for relief. The trustee and the equipment financer are permitted to extend the 60-day period by agreement. During the first 60 days, the automatic stay will apply to prevent foreclosure unless the creditor gets relief from the stay. 

The effect of this section will be the same if the debtor has granted the security interest to the financer or if the debtor is leasing equipment from a financer that has leveraged the lease and leased the equipment subject to a security interest of a third party. 

AMENDMENTS

2000 — Pub. L. 106-181 amended section catchline and text generally, substituting present provisions consisting of subsecs. (a) to (d) for former subsecs. (a) to (c) which contained somewhat similar provisions. 

1994 — Pub. L. 103-394 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: 

"(a) The right of a secured party with a purchase-money equipment security interest in, or of a lessor or conditional vendor of, whether as trustee or otherwise, aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or spare parts, as defined in section 40102(a) of title 49, or vessels of the United States, as defined in section 30101 of title 46, that are subject to a purchase-money equipment security interest granted by, leased to, or conditionally sold to, a debtor that is an air carrier operating under a certificate of convenience and necessity issued by the Secretary of Transportation, or a water carrier that holds a certificate of public convenience and necessity or permit issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission, as the case may be, to take possession of such equipment in compliance with the provisions of a purchase-money equipment securities clearing agency, lease, or conditional sale contract, as the case may be, is not affected by section 362 or 363 of this title or by any power of the court to enjoin such taking of possession, unless— 

"(1) before 60 days after the date of the order for relief under this chapter, the trustee, subject to the court's approval, agrees to perform all obligations of the debtor that become due on or after such date under such securities clearing agency, lease, or conditional sale contract, as the case may be; and 

"(2) any default, other than a default of a kind specified in section 365(b)(2) of this title, under such securities clearing agency, lease, or conditional sale contract, as the case may be— 

"(A) that occurred before such date is cured before the expiration of such 60-day period; and

"(B) that occurs after such date is cured before the later of— 

"(i) 30 days after the date of such default; and

"(ii) the expiration of such 60-day period. 

"(b) The trustee and the secured party, lessor, or conditional vendor, as the case may be, whose right to take possession is protected under subsection (a) of this section may agree, subject to the court's approval, to extend the 60-day period specified in subsection (a)(1) of this section." 

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-272 substituted "section 40102(a) of title 49" for "section 101 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 1301)", "section 30101 of title 46" for "subsection B(4) of the Ship Mortgage Act, 1920 (46 U.S.C. 911(4))", and "Secretary of Transportation" for "Civil Aeronautics Board". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2000 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 106-181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-181, set out as a note under section 106 of Title 49, Transportation. 

1994 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, with this section, as amended by section 201 of Pub. L. 103-394, applicable with respect to any lease, as defined by subsec. (c) of this section, entered into in connection with a settlement of any proceeding in any case pending under this title on Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

TRANS- ABOLITION OF INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION AND TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS

Interstate Commerce Commission abolished and functions of Commission transferred, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104-88, to Surface Transportation Board effective Jan. 1, 1996, by section 702 of Title 49, Transportation, and section 101 of Pub. L. 104-88, set out as a note under section 701 of Title 49. References to Interstate Commerce Commission deemed to refer to Surface Transportation Board, a member or employee of the Board, or Secretary of Transportation, as appropriate, see section 205 of Pub. L. 104-88, set out as a note under section 701 of Title 49. 

AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT SETTLEMENT LEASES

Pub. L. 103-7, Mar. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 36, provided that: 

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. "This Act may be cited as the 'Aircraft Equipment Settlement Leases Act of 1993'. 

"SEC. 2. TREATMENT OF AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT SETTLEMENT LEASES WITH THE PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION.

"In the case of any settlement of liability under title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.) entered into by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation and one or more other parties, if— 

"(1) such settlement was entered into before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act (Mar. 17, 1993),

"(2) at least one party to such settlement was a debtor under title 11 of the United States Code, and 

"(3) an agreement that is entered into as part of such settlement provides that such agreement is to be treated as a lease, then such agreement shall be treated as a lease for purposes of section 1110 of such title 11."

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 348 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1111)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section dispenses with the need for every creditor and equity security holders to file a proof of claim or interest in a reorganization case. Usually the debtor's schedules are accurate enough that they will suffice to determine the claims or interests allowable in the case. Thus, the section specifies that any claim or interest included on the debtor's schedules is deemed filed under section 501. This does not apply to claims or interests that are scheduled as disputed, contingent, or unliquidated. 

LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

A discussion of section 1111(b) of the House amendment is best considered in the context of confirmation and will therefore, be discussed in connection with section 1129

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 901, 927, 1129 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1112)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1112 of the House amendment represents a compromise between the House bill and Senate amendment with respect to the factors constituting cause for conversion of a case to chapter 7 or dismissal. The House amendment combines two separate factors contained in section 1112(b)(1) and section 1112(b)(2) of the Senate amendment. Section 1112(b)(1) of the House amendment permits the court to convert a case to a case under chapter 7 or to dismiss the case if there is both a continuing loss to or diminution of the estate and the absence of a reasonable likelihood of rehabilitation; requiring both factors to be present simultaneously represents a compromise from the House bill which eliminated both factors from the list of causes enumerated. 

Sections 1112(c) and 1112(d) of the House amendment is derived from the House bill which differs from the Senate amendment only as a matter of style. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835.

1986 Acts (Pub. L. 99-554). House Report No. 99-764 and House Conference Report No. 99-958. 

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section brings together all of the conversion and dismissal rules for chapter 11 cases. Subsection (a) gives the debtor an absolute right to convert a voluntarily commenced chapter 11 case in which the debtor remains in possession to a liquidation case. 

Subsection (b) gives wide discretion to the court to make an appropriate disposition of the case sua sponte or upon motion of a party in interest, or the court is permitted to convert a reorganization case to a liquidation case or to dismiss the case, whichever is in the best interest of creditors and the estate, but only for cause. Cause may include the continuing loss to or dimunition (sic) of the estate of an insolvent debtor, the absence of a reasonable likelihood of rehabilitation, the inability to effectuate a plan, unreasonable delay by the debtor that is prejudicial to creditors, failure to file a plan within the appropriate time limits, denial of confirmation and any opportunity to modify or propose a new plan, revocation of confirmation and denial of confirmation of a modified plan, inability to effectuate substantial consummation of a confirmed plan, material default by the debtor under the plan, and termination of the plan by reason of the occurrence of a condition specified in the plan. This list is not exhaustive. The court will be able to consider other factors as they arise, and to use its equitable powers to reach an appropriate result in individual cases. The power of the court to act sua sponte should be used sparingly and only in emergency situations. 

Subsection (c) prohibits the court from converting a case concerning a farmers or an eleemosynary institution to a liquidation case unless the debtor consents. 

Subsection (d) prohibits conversion of a reorganization case to a chapter 13 case unless the debtor requests conversion and his discharge has not been granted or has been revoked. 

Subsection (e) reinforces section 109 by prohibiting conversion of a chapter 11 case to a case under another chapter proceedings under which the debtor is not permitted to proceed. 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1994 — Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-394 inserted "or bankruptcy administrator" after "United States trustee". 

1986

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 224(1)(A), inserted "or the United States trustee" after "party in interest". 

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 224(1)(B)-(D), added par. (10). 

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 256, inserted reference to chapter 12 and added par. (3)

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 224(2), (3), added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f)

1984

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 505(a)(1), substituted "originally was commenced as an involuntary case" for "is an involuntary case originally commenced". 

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 505(a)(2), substituted "other than on" for "on other than". 

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 505(b)(1), inserted "a request made for" before "additional". 

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 505(b)(2), substituted "or" for "and". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

1994 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

1986 Acts. Effective date and applicability of amendment by section 224 of Pub. L. 99-554 dependent upon the judicial district involved, see section 302(d), (e) of Pub. L. 99-554, set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. 

Amendment by section 256 of Pub. L. 99-554 effective 30 days after Oct. 27, 1986, but not applicable to cases commenced under this title before that date, see section 302(a), (c)(1) of Pub. L. 99-554. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 348, 365, 706, 726, 728, 1208, 1307 of this title. 


FOOTNOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1112)

[SIC]  BAPCPA changed the numbering scheme of BC § 521 and deleted § 521(1).  The reference to BC § 521(1) was probably intended to refer to § 521(a)(1), which contains language similar to old  BC § 521(1).    •   


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1112)

BAPCPA § 442(a)    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1113)


REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Railway Labor Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act May 20, 1926, ch. 347, 44 Stat. 577, as amended. Title I of the Railway Labor Act is classified principally to subchapter I (Sec. 151 et seq.) of chapter 8 of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 151 of Title 45 and Tables. 

EFFECTIVE DATES

Section 541(c) of Pub. L. 98-353 provided that: "The amendments made by this section (enacting this section) shall become effective upon the date of enactment of this Act (July 10, 1984); provided that this section shall not apply to cases filed under title 11 of the United States Code which were commenced prior to the date of enactment of this section." 


FOOTNOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1113)

45 U.S.C. § 151 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1114)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

Pub. L. 109-8, Title XIV, § 1403, added section 1114(l), which provides that if the debtor modified retiree benefits within 180 days before the filing of the petition and was insolvent on the date the benefits were modified,  the court shall issue an order reinstating the benefits as of the date the modification was made unless the court finds that the balance of the equities clearly favors such modification. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XIV, § 1406(b)(1) provided that this amendment shall apply with respect to cases commenced on or after the date of the enactment of the Act. 

1988 Acts. Section 4 of Pub. L. 100-334 provided that:

"(a) General Effective Date.—Except as provided in subsection (b), this Act and the amendments made by this Act (enacting this section, amending section 1129 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 101 of this title, and amending and repealing provisions set out as notes under section 1106 of this title) shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act (June 16, 1988). 

"(b) Application of Amendments.—The amendments made by section 2 (enacting this section and amending section 1129 of this title) shall not apply with respect to cases commenced under title 11 of the United States Code before the date of the enactment of this Act (June 16, 1988)." 

 PAYMENT OF CERTAIN BENEFITS TO RETIRED FORMER EMPLOYEES

For payment of benefits by bankruptcy trustee to retired employees in enumerated circumstances with respect to cases commenced under this chapter in which a plan for reorganization had not been confirmed by the court and in which any such benefit was still being paid on October 2, 1986, and in cases that became subject to this chapter after October 2, 1986, and before June 16, 1988, see section 101(b) (title VI, Sec. 608) of Pub. L. 99-500, and Pub. L. 99-591, as amended, set out as a note under section 1106 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 1129 of this title. 


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1114)

BAPCPA § 447(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 447(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 1403(1);  See the note at BAPCPA § 1403(2) for the effective date of amendments made by BAPCPA, Title IV, § 1401 - 1405).    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 1403(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •    BAPCPA § 1406 contains the following uncodified provision:

(a) Effective Date.—Except as provided in subsection (b), this title and the amendments made by this title shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.

(b) Application of Amendments.—    •   

(1) In General.—cept as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this title shall apply only with respect to cases commenced under title 11 of the United States Code on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.

(2) Avoidance Period.—The amendment made by section 1402(1) shall apply only with respect to cases commenced under title 11 of the United States Code more than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act.    •   


So in the original.  Should probably read "Except".    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1115)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

Effective DateS

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330, are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1115)

BAPCPA § 321(a)(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1116)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

Effective DateS

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330, are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1116)

BAPCPA § 436(a)    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1121)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1121 of the House amendment is derived from section 1121 of the House bill; section 1121(c)(1) will be satisfied automatically in a case under subchapter IV of title 11

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835.

1986 Acts (Pub. L. 99-554). House Report No. 99-764 and House Conference Report No. 99-958. 

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. Subsection (a) permits the debtor to file a reorganization plan with a petition commencing a voluntary case or at any time during a voluntary or involuntary case. 

Subsection (b) gives the debtor the exclusive right to file a plan during the first 120 days of the case. There are exceptions, however, enumerated in subsection (c). If a trustee has been appointed, if the debtor does not meet the 120-day deadline, or if the debtor fails to obtain the required consent within 180 days after the filing of the petition, any party in interest may propose a plan. This includes the debtor, the trustee, a creditors' committee, an equity security holders' committee, a creditor, an equity security holders, and an indenture trustee. The list is not exhaustive. In the case of a public company, a trustee is appointed within 10 days of the petition. In such a case, for all practical purposes, any party in interest may file a plan. 

Subsection (d) permits the court, for cause, to increase or reduce the 120-day and 180-day periods specified. Since, the debtor has an exclusive privilege for 6 months during which others may not file a plan, the granted extension should be based on a showing of some promise of probable success. An extension should not be employed as a tactical device to put pressure on parties in interest to yield to a plan they consider unsatisfactory. 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1994 — Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103-394 added subsec. (e)

1986 — Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99-554 inserted reference to subsection (b) of this section. 

1984

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 506(a), substituted "of claims or interests that is" for "the claims or interests of which are". 

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 506(b), inserted "made within the respective periods specified in subsection (c) of this section". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

1994 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

1986 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 99-554 effective 30 days after Oct. 27, 1986, see section 302(a) of Pub. L. 99-554, set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 306, 348, 1106, 1112, 1125 of this title; title 28 section 158


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1121)

BAPCPA § 411(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 411(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 437    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1122)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section codifies current case law surrounding the classification of claims and equity securities. It requires classification based on the nature of the claims or interests classified, and permits inclusion of claims or interests in a particular class only if the claim or interest being included is substantially similar to the other claims or interests of the class. 

Subsection (b), also a codification of existing practice, contains an exception. The plan may designate a separate class of claims consisting only of every unsecured claim that is less than or reduced to an amount that the court approves as reasonable and necessary for administrative convenience. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 901, 1123, 1127, 1222, 1322 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1123)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1123 of the House amendment represents a compromise between similar provisions in the House bill and Senate amendment. 

The section has been clarified to clearly indicate that both secured and unsecured claims, or either of them, may be impaired in a case under title 11. In addition assumption or rejection of an executory contract under a plan must comply with section 365 of title 11. Moreover, section 1123(a)(1) has been substantively modified to permit classification of certain kinds of priority claims. This is important for purposes of confirmation under section 1129(a)(9)

Section 1123(a)(5) of the House amendment is derived from a similar provision in the House bill and Senate amendment but deletes the language pertaining to "fair upset price" as an unnecessary restriction. Section 1123 is also intended to indicate that a plan may provide for any action specified in section 1123 in the case of a corporation without a resolution of the board of directors. If the plan is confirmed, then any action proposed in the plan may be taken notwithstanding any otherwise applicable nonbankruptcy law in accordance with section 1142(a) of title 11

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835.

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. Subsection (a) specifies what a plan of reorganization must contain. The plan must designate classes of claims and interests, and specify, by class, the claims or interests that are unimpaired under the plan. Priority claims are not required to be classified because they may not have arisen when the plan is filed. The plan must provide the same treatment for each claim or interest of a particular class, unless the holder of a particular claim or interest agrees to a different, but not better, treatment of his claim or interest. 

Paragraph (3) applies to claims, not creditors. Thus, if a creditor is undersecured, and thus has a secured claim and an unsecured claim, this paragraph will be applied independently to each of his claims

Paragraph (4) of subsection (a) is derived from section 216 of chapter X (section 616 of former title 11) with some modifications. It requires the plan to provide adequate means for the plans execution. These means may include retention by the debtor of all or any part of the property of the estate, transfer of all or any part of the property of the estate to one or more entities, whether organized pre- or postconfirmation, merger or consolidation of the debtor with one or more persons, sale and distribution of all or any part of the property of the estate, satisfaction or modification of any lien, cancellation or modification of any indenture or similar instrument, curing or waiving of any default, extension of maturity dates or change in interest rates of securities, amendment of the debtor's charter, and issuance of securities

Subparagraph (C), as it applies in railroad cases, has the effect of overruling St. Joe Paper Co. v. Atlantic Coast Line R. R., 347 U.S. 298 (1954). It will allow the trustee or creditors to propose a plan of merger with another railroad without the consent of the debtor, and the debtor will be bound under proposed 11 U.S.C. 1141(a). See Hearings, pt. 3, at 1616. "Similar instrument" referred to in subparagraph (F) might include a deposit with an agent for distribution, other than an indenture trustee, such as an agent under an agreement in a railroad conditional sale or lease financing agreement. 

Paragraphs (5) and (6) and subsection (b) are derived substantially from Section 216 of Chapter X ((former) 11 U.S.C. 616). Paragraph (5) requires the plan to prohibit the issuance of nonvoting equity securities, and to provide for an appropriate distribution of voting power among the various classes of equity securities. Paragraph (6) requires that the plan contain only provisions that are consistent with the interests of creditors and equity security holders, and with public policy with respect to the selection of officers, directors, and trustees, and their successors. 

Subsection (b) specifies the matters that the plan may propose. The plan may impair or leave unimpaired any claim or interest. The plan may provide for the assumption or rejection of executory contracts or unexpired leases not previously rejected under section 365. The plan may also provide for the treatment of claims by the debtor against other entities that are not settled before the confirmation of the plan. The plan may propose settlement or adjustment of any claim or equity security belonging to the estate, or may propose retention and enforcement of such claim or interest by the debtor or by an agent appointed for that purpose. 

The plan may also propose the sale of all or substantially all of the property of the estate, and the distribution of the proceeds of the sale among creditors and equity security holders. This would be a liquidating plan. The subsection permits the plan to include any other appropriate provision not inconsistent with the applicable provisions of the bankruptcy code. 

Subsection (c) protects an individual debtor's exempt property by prohibiting its use, sale, or lease under a plan proposed by someone other than the debtor, unless the debtor consents. 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1994

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 304(h)(6), 501(d)(31), substituted "507(a)(8) of this title," for "507(a)(7) of this title". 

Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 206, added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6)

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 305(a), added subsec. (d)

1984

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 507(a)(1), in provisions preceding par. (1) substituted "Notwithstanding any otherwise applicable nonbankruptcy law, a" for "A". 

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 507(a)(2), inserted a comma after "classes of claims" and substituted "507(a)(7) of this title," for "507(a)(6) of this title". 

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 507(a)(3), struck out "shall" before "specify the treatment". 

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 507(a)(4), substituted "implementation" for "execution". 

Subsec. (a)(5)(G). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 507(a)(5), inserted "of" after "waiving". 

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 507(b), substituted "rejection, or assignment" for "or rejection", and "under such section" for "under section 365 of this title". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

1994 Acts. Amendment by sections 206, 304(h)(6), and 501(d)(31) of Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, and amendment by section 305(a) of Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and applicable only to agreements entered into after Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 901, 1124, 1127, 1172 of this title. 


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1123)

BAPCPA § 321(b)(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 321(b)(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 321(b)(3)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 1502(a)(7)    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1124)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1124 of the House amendment is derived from a similar provision in the House bill and Senate amendment. The section defines the new concept of "impairment" of claims or interests; the concept differs significantly from the concept of "materially and adversely affected" under the Bankruptcy Act (former title 11). Section 1124(3) of the House amendment provides that a holder of a claim or interest is not impaired, if the plan provides that the holder will receive the allowed amount of the holder's claim, or in the case of an interest with a fixed liquidation preference or redemption price, the greater of such price. This adopts the position contained in the House bill and rejects the contrary standard contained in the Senate amendment. 

Section 1124(3) of the House amendment rejects a provision contained in section 1124(3)(B)(iii) of the House bill which would have considered a class of interest not to be impaired by virtue of the fact that the plan provided cash or property for the value of the holder's interest in the debtor

The effect of the House amendment is to permit an interest not to be impaired only if the interest has a fixed liquidation preference or redemption price. Therefore, a class of interests such as common stock, must either accept a plan under section 1129(a)(8), or the plan must satisfy the requirements of section 1129(b)(2)(C) in order for a plan to be confirmed. 

A compromise reflected in section 1124(2)(C) of the House amendment indicates that a class of claims is not impaired under the circumstances of section 1124(2) if damages are paid to rectify reasonable reliance engaged in by the holder of a claim or interest arising from the prepetition breach of a contractual provision, such as an ipso facto or bankruptcy clause, or law. Where the rights of third parties are concerned, such as in the case of lease premises which have been rerented to a third party, it is not intended that there will be adequate damages to compensate the third party. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835.

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. The basic concept underlying this section is not new. It rests essentially on Section 107 of Chapter X ((former) 11 U.S.C. 507), which states that creditors or stockholders or any class thereof "shall be deemed to be 'affected' by a plan only if their or its interest shall be materially and adversely affected thereby." This section is designated to indicate when contractual rights of creditors or interest holders are not materially affected. It specifies three ways in which the plan may leave a claim or interest unimpaired. 

First, the plan may propose not to alter the legal, equitable, or contractual rights to which the claim or interest entitled its holder. 

Second, a claim or interest is unimpaired by curing the effect of a default and reinstating the original terms of an obligation when maturity was brought on or accelerated by the default. The intervention of bankruptcy and the defaults represent a temporary crisis which the plan of reorganization is intended to clear away. The holder of a claim or interest who under the plan is restored to his original position, when others receive less or get nothing at all, is fortunate indeed and has no cause to complain. Curing of the default and the assumption of the debt in accordance with its terms is an important reorganization technique for dealing with a particular class of claims, especially secured claims

Third, a claim or interest is unimpaired if the plan provides for their payment in cash. In the case of a debt liability, the cash payment is for the allowed amount of the claim, which does not include a redemption premium. If it is an equity security with a fixed liquidation preference, such as a preferred stock, the allowed amount is such liquidation preference, with no redemption premium. With respect to any other equity security, such as a common stock, cash payment must be equal to the "value of such holder's interest in the debtor." 

Section 1124 does not include payment "in property" other than cash. Except for a rare case, claims or interests are not by their terms payable in property, but a plan may so provide and those affected thereby may accept or reject the proposed plan. They may not be forced to accept a plan declaring the holders' claims or interests to be "unimpaired." 

House Report No. 95-595. This section is new. It is designed to indicate when contractual rights of creditors or interest holders are not materially affected. The section specifies three ways in which the plan may leave a claim or interest unimpaired. 

First, the plan may propose not to alter the legal, equitable, or contractual rights to which the claim or interest entitled its holder. 

Second, the plan is permitted to reinstate a claim or interest and thus leave it unimpaired. Reinstatement consists of curing any default (other than a default under an ipso facto or bankruptcy clause) and reinstatement of the maturity of the claim or interest. Further, the plan may not otherwise alter any legal, equitable, or contractual right to which the claim or interest entitles its holder. 

Third, the plan may leave a claim or interest unimpaired by paying its amount in full other than in securities of the debtor, an affiliate of the debtor participating in a joint plan, or a successor to the debtor. These securities are excluded because determination of their value would require a valuation of the business being reorganized. Use of them to pay a creditor or equity security holders without his consent may be done only under section 1129(b) and only after a valuation of the debtor. Under this paragraph, the plan must pay the allowed amount of the claim in full, in cash or other property, or, in the case of an equity security, must pay the greatest of any fixed liquidation preference to which the terms of the equity security entitle its holder, any fixed price at which the debtor, under the terms of the equity security may redeem such equity security, and the value, as of the effective date of the plan, of the holder's interest in the debtor. The value of the holder's interest need not be determined precisely by valuing the debtor's business if such value is clearly below redemption or liquidation preference values. If such value would require a full-scale valuation of the business, then such interest should be treated as impaired. But, if the debtor corporation is clearly insolvent, then the value of the common stock holder's interest in the debtor is zero, and offering them nothing under the plan of reorganization will not impair their rights. 

"Value, as of the effective date of the plan," as used in paragraph (3) and in proposed 11 U.S.C. 1179(a)(7)(B), 1129(a)(9), 1129(b), 1172(2), 1325(a)(4), 1325(a)(5)(B), and 1328(b), indicates that the promised payment under the plan must be discounted to present value as of the effective date of the plan. The discounting should be based only on the unpaid balance of the amount due under the plan, until that amount, including interest, is paid in full. 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1994

Par. (3). Pub. L. 103-394 struck out par. (3) which read as follows: "provides that, on the effective date of the plan, the holder of such claim or interest receives, on account of such claim or interest, cash equal to— 

"(A) with respect to a claim, the allowed amount of such claim; or

"(B) with respect to an interest, if applicable, the greater of— 

"(i) any fixed liquidation preference to which the terms of any security representing such interest entitle the holder of such interest; or 

"(ii) any fixed price at which the debtor, under the terms of such security, may redeem such security from such holder."

1984

Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 508(1), amended subpar. (A) generally. 

Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "cures any such default, other than a default of a kind specified in section 365(b)(2) of this title, that occurred before or after the commencement of the case under this title;".

Par. (3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 508(2), substituted "or" for "and". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

1994 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 901 of this title. 


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1124)

BAPCPA § 328(b)(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 328(b)(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 328(b)(3)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 328(b)(4)    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1125)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1125 of the House amendment is derived from section 1125 of the House bill and Senate amendment except with respect to section 1125(f) of the Senate amendment. It will not be necessary for the court to consider the report of the examiner prior to approval of a disclosure statement. The investigation of the examiner is to proceed on an independent basis from the procedure of the reorganization under chapter 11. In order to ensure that the examiner's report will be expeditious and fair, the examiner is precluded from serving as a trustee in the case or from representing a trustee if a trustee is appointed, whether the case remains in chapter 11 or is converted to chapter 7 or 13

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835.

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section extends disclosure requirements in connection with solicitations to all cases under chapter 11. Heretofore this subject was dealt with by the Bankruptcy Act (former title 11) mainly in the special contexts of railroad reorganizations and chapter X (chapter 10 of former title 11) cases. 

Subsection (a) defines (1) the subject matter of disclosure as "adequate information" and relates the standard of adequacy to an (2) "investor typical of holders or claims or interests of the relevant class." "Investor" is used broadly here, for it will almost always include a trade creditor or other creditors who originally had no investment intent or interest. It refers to the investment-type decision by those called upon to accept a plan to modify their claims or interests, which typically will involve acceptance of new securities or of a cash payment in lieu thereof. 

Both the kind and form of information are left essentially to the judicial discretion of the court, guided by the specification in subparagraph (a)(1) that it be of a kind and in sufficient detail that a reasonable and typical investor can make an informed judgment about the plan. The information required will necessarily be governed by the circumstances of the case. 

Reporting and audit standards devised for solvent and continuing businesses do not necessarily fit a debtor in reorganization. Subsection (a)(1) expressly incorporates consideration of the nature and history of the debtor and the condition of its books and records into the determination of what is reasonably practicable to supply. These factors are particularly pertinent to historical data and to discontinued operations of no future relevance. 

A plan is necessarily predicated on knowledge of the assets and liabilities being dealt with and on factually supported expectations as to the future course of the business sufficient to meet the feasibility standard in section 1130(a)(11) of this title. It may thus be necessary to provide estimates or judgments for that purpose. Yet it remains practicable to describe, in such detail as may be relevant and needed, the basis for the plan and the data on which supporters of the plan rely. 

Subsection (b) establishes the jurisdiction of the court over this subject by prohibiting solicitation of acceptance or rejection of a plan after the commencement of the case, unless the person solicited receives, before or at the time of the solicitation, a written disclosure statement approved by the court, after notice and hearing, as containing adequate information. As under present law, determinations of value, by appraisal or otherwise, are not required if not needed to accomplish the purpose specified in subsection (a)(1)

Subsection (c) requires the same disclosure statement be transmitted to each member of a class. It recognizes that the information needed for an informed judgment about the plan may differ among classes. A class whose rights under the plan center on a particular fund or asset would have no use for an extensive description of other matters that could not affect them. 

Subsection (d) relieves the court of the need to follow any otherwise applicable Federal or state law in determining the adequacy of the information contained in the disclosure statement submitted for its approval. It authorizes an agency or official, Federal or state, charged with administering cognate laws so preempted to advise the court on the adequacy of proposed disclosure statement. But they are not authorized to appeal the court's decision. 

Solicitations with respect to a plan do not involve just mere requests for opinions. Acceptance of the plan vitally affects creditors and shareholders, and most frequently the solicitation involves an offering of securities in exchange for claims or interests. The present bankruptcy statute (former title 11) has exempted such offerings under each of its chapters from the registration and disclosure requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.), an exemption also continued by section 1145(a)(2) of this title. The extension of the disclosure requirements to all chapter 11 cases justifies the coordinate extension of these exemptions. By the same token, no valid purpose is served not to exempt from the requirements of similar state laws in a matter under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal bankruptcy laws. 

Subsection (e) exonerates any person who, in good faith and in compliance with this title, solicits or participates in the offer, issuance, sale or purchase, under the plan, of a security from any liability, on account of such solicitation or participation, for violation of any law, rule, or regulation governing the offer, issuance, sale, or purchase of securities. This exoneration is coordinate with the exemption from Federal or State registration or licensing requirements provided by section 1145 of this title. 

In the nonpublic case, the court, when approving the disclosure statement, has before it the texts of the plan, a proposed disclosure document, and such other information the plan proponents and other interested parties may present at the hearing. In the final analysis the exoneration which subsection (e) grants must depend on the good faith of the plan proponents and of those who participate in the preparation of the disclosure statement and in the solicitation. Subsection (e) does not affect civil or criminal liability for defects and inadequacies that are beyond the limits of the exoneration that good faith provides. 

Section 1125 applies to public companies as well, subject to the qualifications of subsection (f). In case of a public company no solicitations of acceptance is permitted unless authorized by the court upon or after approval of the plan pursuant to section 1128(c). In addition to the documents specified in subsection (b), subsection (f) requires transmission of the opinion and order of the court approving the plan and, if filed, the advisory report of the Securities and Exchange Commission or a summary thereof prepared by the Commission. 

House Report No. 95-595. This section is new. It is the heart of the consolidation of the various reorganization chapters found in current law. It requires disclosure before solicitation of acceptances of a plan or reorganization. 

Subsection (a) contains two definitions. First, "adequate information" is defined to mean information of a kind, and insufficient detail, as far as is reasonably practical in light of the nature and history of the debtor and the condition of the debtor's books and records, that would enable a hypothetical reasonable investor typical of holders of claims or interests of the relevant class to make an informed judgment about the plan. 

Second, "investor typical of holders of claims or interests of the relevant class" is defined to mean an investor having a claim or interest of the relevant class, having such a relationship with the debtor as the holders of other claims or interests of the relevant class have, and having such ability to obtain information from sources other than the disclosure statement as holders of claims or interests of the relevant class have, and having such ability to obtain information from sources other than the disclosure statement as holders of claims or interests of the relevant class have. That is, the hypothetical investor against which the disclosure is measured must not be an insider if other members of the class are not insiders, and so on. In other words, the adequacy of disclosure is measured against the typical investor, not an extraordinary one. 

The Supreme Court's rulemaking power will not extend to rulemaking that will prescribe what constitutes adequate information. That standard is a substantive standard. Precisely what constitutes adequate information in any particular instance will develop on a case-by-case basis. Courts will take a practical approach as to what is necessary under the circumstances of each case, such as the cost of preparation of the statements, the need for relative speed in solicitation and confirmation, and, of course, the need for investor protection. There will be a balancing of interests in each case. In reorganization cases, there is frequently great uncertainty. Therefore the need for flexibility is greatest. 

Subsection (b) is the operative subsection. It prohibits solicitation of acceptances or rejections of a plan after the commencement of the case unless, at the time of the solicitation or before, there is transmitted to the solicitee the plan or a summary of the plan, and a written disclosure statement approved by the court as containing adequate information. The subsection permits approval of the statement without the necessity of a valuation of the debtor or an appraisal of the debtor's assets. However, in some cases, a valuation or appraisal will be necessary to develop adequate information. The court will be able to determine what is necessary in light of the facts and circumstances of each particular case. 

Subsection (c) requires the same disclosure statement go to all members of a particular class, but permits different disclosure to different classes. 

Subsection (d) excepts the disclosure statements from the requirements of the securities laws (such as section 14 of the 1934 Act (15 U.S.C. 78n) and section 5 of the 1933 Act (15 U.S.C. 77e)), and from similar State securities laws (blue sky laws, for example). The subsection permits an agency or official whose duty is to administer or enforce such laws (such as the Securities and Exchange Commission or State Corporation Commissioners) to appear and be heard on the issue of whether a disclosure statement contains adequate information, but the agencies and officials are not granted the right of appeal from an adverse determination in any capacity. They may join in an appeal by a true party in interest, however. 

Subsection (e) is a safe harbor provision, and is necessary to make the exemption provided by subsection (d) effective. Without it, a creditor that solicited an acceptance or rejection in reliance on the court's approval of a disclosure statement would be potentially liable under antifraud sections designed to enforce the very sections of the securities laws from which subsection (d) excuses compliance. The subsection protects only persons that solicit in good faith and in compliance with the applicable provisions of the reorganization chapter. It provides protection from legal liability as well as from equitable liability based on an injunctive action by the SEC or other agency or official. 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1994 — Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103-394 added subsec. (f). 

1984

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 509(a)(1), inserted ", but adequate information need not include such information about any other possible or proposed plan". 

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 509(a)(2), inserted "the" after "with". 

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 509(a)(3), inserted "of" after "holders". 

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 509(b), inserted "required under subsection (b) of this section" and ", or otherwise seek review of,". 

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 509(c), inserted "acceptance or rejection of a plan" after "solicits", and "solicitation of acceptance or rejection of a plan or" after "governing". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

1994 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 901, 1126, 1127, 1145 of this title; title 28 section 586


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1125)

BAPCPA § 408    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 431(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 431(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 717(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 717(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1126)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1126 of the House amendment deletes section 1126(e) as contained in the House bill. Section 105 of the bill constitutes sufficient power in the court to designate exclusion of a creditor's claim on the basis of a conflict of interest. Section 1126(f) of the House amendment adopts a provision contained in section 1127(f) of the Senate bill indicating that a class that is not impaired under a plan is deemed to have accepted a plan and solicitation of acceptances from such class is not required. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. Subsection (a) of this section permits the holder of a claim or interest allowed under section 502 to accept or reject a proposed plan of reorganization. The subsection also incorporates a provision now found in section 199 of chapter X (section 599 of former title 11) that authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to accept or reject a plan on behalf of the United States when the United States is a creditor or equity security holder. 

Subsection (b) governs acceptances and rejections of plans obtained before commencement of a reorganization for a nonpublic company. Paragraph (3) expressly states that subsection (b) does not apply to a public company. 

Prepetition solicitation is a common practice under chapter XI (chapter 11 of former title 11) today, and chapter IX (chapter 9 of former title 11) current makes explicit provision for it. Section 1126(b) counts a prepetition acceptance or rejection toward the required amounts and number of acceptances only if the solicitation of the acceptance or rejection was in compliance with any applicable nonbankruptcy law, rule, or regulation governing the adequacy of disclosure in connection with such solicitation. If there is not any such applicable law, rule, or regulation, then the acceptance or rejection is counted only if it was solicited after disclosure of adequate information, to the holder, as defined in section 1125(a)(1). This permits the court to ensure that the requirements of section 1125 are not avoided by prepetition solicitation. 

Subsection (c) specifies the required amount and number of acceptances for a class of creditors. A class of creditors has accepted a plan if at least two-thirds in amount and more than one-half in number of the allowed claims of the class that are voted are cast in favor of the plan. The amount and number are computed on the basis of claims actually voted for or against the plan, not as under chapter X (chapter 10 of former title 11) on the basis of the allowed claims in the class. Subsection (f) excludes from all these calculations claims not voted in good faith, and claims procured or solicited not in good faith or not in accordance with the provisions of this title. 

Subsection (c) requires  that the same disclosure statement be transmitted to each member of a class. It recognizes that the information needed for an informed judgment about the plan may differ among classes. A class whose rights under the plan center on a particular fund or asset would have no use for an extensive description of other matters that could not affect them. 

Subsection (d) relieves the court of the need to follow any otherwise applicable Federal or state law in determining the adequacy of the information contained in the disclosure statement submitted for its approval. It authorizes an agency or official, Federal or state, charged with administering cognate laws so pre-empted to advise the court on the adequacy of proposed disclosure statement. But they are not authorized to appeal the court's decision. 

Solicitations with respect to a plan do not involve just mere requests for opinions. Acceptance of the plan vitally affects creditors and shareholders, and most frequently the solicitation involves an offering of securities in exchange for claims or interests. The present Bankruptcy Act (former title 11) has exempted such offerings under each of its chapters from the registration and disclosure requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.), an exemption also continued by section 1145 of this title. The extension of the disclosure requirements to all chapter 11 cases is justified by the integration of the separate chapters into the single chapter 11. By the same token, no valid purpose is served by failing to provide exemption from the requirements of similar state laws in a matter under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal bankruptcy laws. 

Under subsection (d), with respect to a class of equity securities, it is sufficient for acceptance of the plan if the amount of securities voting for the plan is at least two-thirds of the total actually voted. 

Subsection (e) provides that no acceptances are required from any class whose claims or interests are unimpaired under the plan or in the order confirming the plan. 

Subsection (g) provides that any class denied participation under the plan is conclusively deemed to have rejected the plan. There is obviously no need to submit a plan for a vote by a class that is to receive nothing. But under subsection (g) the excluded class is like a class that has not accepted, and is a dissenting class for purposes of confirmation under section 1130. 

AMENDMENTS

1984

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 510(a), substituted "1125(a)" for "1125(a)(1)". 

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 510(b), inserted a comma after "such interests". 

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 510(c), substituted ", and each holder of a claim or interest of such class, are conclusively presumed" for "is deemed", "solicitation" for "solicititation", and "interests" for "interest". 

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 510(d), substituted "receive or retain any property" for "any payment or compensation".

EFFECTIVE DATES

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 901, 946 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1127)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1127(a) of the House amendment adopts a provision contained in the House bill permitting only the proponent of a plan to modify the plan and rejecting the alternative of open modification contained in the Senate amendment. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. Under subsection (a) the proponent may file a proposal to modify a plan prior to confirmation. In the case of a public company the modifying proposal may be filed prior to approval. 

Subsection (b) provides that a party in interest eligible to file a plan may file instead of a plan a proposal to modify a plan filed by another. Under subsection (c) a party in interest objecting to some feature of a plan may submit a proposal to modify the plan to meet the objection. 

After a plan has been confirmed, but before its substantial consummation, a plan may be modified by leave of court, which subsection (d) provides shall be granted for good cause. Subsection (e) provides that a proposal to modify a plan is subject to the disclosure requirements of section 1125 and as provided in subsection (f). It provides that a creditor or stockholder who voted for or against a plan is deemed to have accepted or rejected the modifying proposal. But if the modification materially and adversely affects any of their interests, they must be afforded an opportunity to change their vote in accordance with the disclosure and solicitation requirements of section 1125

Under subsection (g) a plan, if modified prior to confirmation, shall be confirmed if it meets the requirements of section 1130. 

House Report No. 95-595. Subsection (a) permits the proponent of a plan to modify it at any time before confirmation, subject, of course, to the requirements of sections 1122 and 1123, governing classification and contents of a plan. After the proponent of a plan files a modification with the court, the plan as modified becomes the plan, and is to be treated the same as an original plan. 

Subsection (b) permits modification of a plan after confirmation under certain circumstances. The modification must be proposed before substantial consummation of the plan. The requirements of sections 1122 and 1123 continue to apply. The plan as modified under this subsection becomes the plan only if the court confirms the plan as modified under section 1129 and the circumstances warrant the modification. 

Subsection (c) requires the proponent of a modification to comply with the disclosure provisions of section 1125. Of course, if the modification were sufficiently minor, the court might determine that additional disclosure was not required under the circumstances. 

Subsection (d) simplifies modification procedure by deeming any creditor or equity security holder that has already accepted or rejected the plan to have accepted or rejected the modification, unless, within the time fixed by the court, the creditor or equity security holders changes this previous acceptance or rejection. 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1984

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 511(a), inserted "of a plan" after "After the proponent", and "of such plan" after "modification". 

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 511(b), substituted "circumstances warrant such modification and the court, after notice and a hearing, confirms such plan as modified, under section 1129 of this title" for "the court, after notice and a hearing, confirms such plan, as modified, under section 1129 of this title, and circumstances warrant such modification". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 901, 1129 of this title. 


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1127)

BAPCPA § 321(e)    •    House Report 109-31    •      -  1127(e)  -  1127(f)


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1128)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. (Section 1129 (enacted as section 1128)) Subsection (a) requires that there be a hearing in every case on the confirmation of the plan. Notice is required. 

Subsection (b) permits any party in interest to object to the confirmation of the plan. The Securities and Exchange Commission and indenture trustees, as parties in interest under section 1109, may object to confirmation of the plan. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in section 901 of this title; title 28 section 586


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1129)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1129 of the House amendment relates to confirmation of a plan in a case under chapter 11. Section 1129(a)(3) of the House amendment adopts the position taken in the Senate amendment and section 1129(a)(5) takes the position adopted in the House bill. 

Section 1129(a)(7) adopts the position taken in the House bill in order to insure that the dissenting members of an accepting class will receive at least what they would otherwise receive under the best interest of creditors test; it also requires that even the members of a class that has rejected the plan be protected by the best interest of creditors test for those rare cramdown cases where a class of creditors would receive more on liquidation than under reorganization of the debtor. Section 1129(a)(7)(C) is discussed in connection with section 1129(b) and section 1111(b). Section 1129(a)(8) of the House amendment adopts the provision taken in the House bill which permits confirmation of a plan as to a particular class without resort to the fair and equitable test if the class has accepted a plan or is unimpaired under the plan. 

Section 1129(a)(9) represents a compromise between a similar provision contained in the House bill and the Senate amendment. Under subparagraph (A) claims entitled to priority under section 507(a)(1) or (2) are entitled to receive cash on the effective date of the plan equal to the amount of the claim. Under subparagraph (B) claims entitled to priority under section 507(a)(3), (4), or (5), are entitled to receive deferred cash payments of a present value as of the effective date of the plan equal to the amount of the claims if the class has accepted the plan or cash payments on the effective date of the plan otherwise. Tax claims entitled to priority under section 507(a)(6) of different governmental units may not be contained in one class although all claims of one such unit may be combined and such unit may be required to take deferred cash payments over a period not to exceed 6 years after the date of assessment of the tax with the present value equal to the amount of the claim

Section 1129(a)(10) is derived from section 1130(a)(12) of the Senate amendment.

Section 1129(b) is new. Together with section 1111(b) and section 1129(a)(7)(C), this section provides when a plan may be confirmed, notwithstanding the failure of an impaired class to accept the plan under section 1129(a)(8). Before discussing section 1129(b) an understanding of section 1111(b) is necessary. Section 1111(b)(1), the general rule that a secured claim is to be treated as a recourse claim in chapter 11 whether or not the claim is nonrecourse by agreement or applicable law. This preferred status for a nonrecourse loan terminates if the property securing the loan is sold under section 363 or is to be sold under the plan. 

The preferred status also terminates if the class of which the secured claim is a part elects application of section 1111(b)(2) Section 1111(b)(2) provides that an allowed claim is a secured claim to the full extent the claim is allowed rather than to the extent of the collateral as under section 506(a). A class may elect application of paragraph (2) only if the security is not of inconsequential value and, if the creditor is a recourse creditor, the collateral is not sold under section 363 or to be sold under the plan. Sale of property under section 363 or under the plan is excluded from treatment under section 1111(b) because of the secured party's right to bid in the full amount of his allowed claim at any sale of collateral under section 363(k) of the House amendment. 

As previously noted, section 1129(b) sets forth a standard by which a plan may be confirmed notwithstanding the failure of an impaired class to accept the plan. 

Paragraph (1) makes clear that this alternative confirmation standard, referred to as "cram down," will be called into play only on the request of the proponent of the plan. Under this cramdown test, the court must confirm the plan if the plan does not discriminate unfairly, and is "fair and equitable," with respect to each class of claims or interests that is impaired under, and has not accepted, the plan. The requirement of the House bill that a plan not "discriminate unfairly" with respect to a class is included for clarity; the language in the House report interpreting that requirement, in the context of subordinated debentures, applies equally under the requirements of section 1129(b)(1) of the House amendment. 

Although many of the factors interpreting "fair and equitable" are specified in paragraph (2), others, which were explicated in the description of section 1129(b) in the House report, were omitted from the House amendment to avoid statutory complexity and because they would undoubtedly be found by a court to be fundamental to "fair and equitable" treatment of a dissenting class. For example, a dissenting class should be assured that no senior class receives more than 100 percent of the amount of its claims. While that requirement was explicitly included in the House bill, the deletion is intended to be one of style and not one of substance. 

Paragraph (2) provides guidelines for a court to determine whether a plan is fair and equitable with respect to a dissenting class. It must be emphasized that the fair and equitable requirement applies only with respect to dissenting classes. 

Therefore, unlike the fair and equitable rule contained in chapter X (chapter 10 of former title 11) and section 77 of the Bankruptcy Act (section 205 of former title 11) under section 1129(b)(2), senior accepting classes are permitted to give up value to junior classes as long as no dissenting intervening class receives less than the amount of its claims in full. If there is no dissenting intervening class and the only dissent is from a class junior to the class to which value have been given up, then the plan may still be fair and equitable with respect to the dissenting class, as long as no class senior to the dissenting class has received more than 100 percent of the amount of its claims

Paragraph (2) contains three subparagraphs, each of which applies to a particular kind of class of claims or interests that is impaired and has not accepted the plan. Subparagraph (A) applies when a class of secured claims is impaired and has not accepted the plan. The provision applies whether or not section 1111(b) applies. The plan may be crammed down notwithstanding the dissent of a secured class only if the plan complies with clause (i), (ii), or (iii)

Clause (i) permits cramdown if the dissenting class of secured claims will retain its lien on the property whether the property is retained by the debtor or transferred. It should be noted that the lien secures the allowed secured claim held by such holder. The meaning of "allowed secured claim" will vary depending on whether section 1111(b)(2) applies to such class. 

If section 1111(b)(2) applies then the "electing" class is entitled to have the entire allowed amount of the debt related to such property secured by a lien even if the value of the collateral is less than the amount of the debt. In addition, the plan must provide for the holder to receive, on account of the allowed secured claims, payments, either present or deferred, of a principal face amount equal to the amount of the debt and of a present value equal to the value of the collateral. 

For example, if a creditor loaned $15,000,000 to a debtor secured by real property worth $18,000,000 and the value of the real property had dropped to $12,000,000 by the date when the debtor commenced a proceeding under chapter 11, the plan could be confirmed notwithstanding the dissent of the creditor as long as the lien remains on the collateral to secure a $15,000,000 debt, the face amount of present or extended payments to be made to the creditor under the plan is at least $15,000,000, and the present value of the present or deferred payments is not less than $12,000,000. The House report accompanying the House bill described what is meant by "present value". 

Clause (ii) is self explanatory. Clause (iii) requires the court to confirm the plan notwithstanding the dissent of the electing secured class if the plan provides for the realization by the secured class of the indubitable equivalents of the secured claims. The standard of "indubitable equivalents" is taken from In re Murel Holding Corp., 75 F.2d 941 (2d Cir. 1935) (Learned Hand, Jr.). 

Abandonment of the collateral to the creditor would clearly satisfy indubitable equivalence, as would a lien on similar collateral. However, present cash payments less than the secured claim would not satisfy the standard because the creditor is deprived of an opportunity to gain from a future increase in value of the collateral. Unsecured notes as to the secured claim or equity securities of the debtor would not be the indubitable equivalent. With respect to an oversecured creditor, the secured claim will never exceed the allowed claim. 

Although the same language applies, a different result pertains with respect to a class of secured claims to which section 1111(b)(2) does not apply. This will apply to all claims secured by a right of setoff. The court must confirm the plan notwithstanding the dissent of such a class of secured claims if any of three alternative requirements is met. Under clause (i) the plan may be confirmed if the class retains a right of setoff or a lien securing the allowed secured claims of the class and the holders will receive payments of a present value equal to the allowed amount of their secured claims. Contrary to electing classes of secured creditors who retain a lien under subparagraph (A)(i)(I) to the extent of the entire claims secured by such lien, nonelecting creditors retain a lien on collateral only to the extent of their allowed secured claims and not to the extent of any deficiency, and such secured creditors must receive present or deferred payments with a present value equal to the allowed secured claim, which in turn is only the equivalent of the value of the collateral under section 506(a)

Any deficiency claim of a nonelecting class of secured claims is treated as an unsecured claim and is not provided for under subparagraph (A). The plan may be confirmed under clause (ii) if the plan proposes to sell the property free and clear of the secured party's lien as long as the lien will attach to the proceeds and will receive treatment under clause (i) or (iii). Clause (iii) permits confirmation if the plan provides for the realization by the dissenting nonelecting class of secured claims of the indubitable equivalent of the secured claims of such class. 

Contrary to an "electing" class to which section 1111(b)(2) applies, the nonelecting class need not be protected with respect to any future appreciation in value of the collateral since the secured claim of such a class is never undersecured by reason of section 506(a). Thus the lien secures only the value of interest of such creditor in the collateral. To the extent deferred payments exceed that amount, they represent interest. In the event of a subsequent default, the portion of the face amount of deferred payments representing unaccrued interest will not be secured by the lien

Subparagraph (B) applies to a dissenting class of unsecured claims. The court must confirm the plan notwithstanding the dissent of a class of impaired unsecured claims if the plan provides for such claims to receive property with a present value equal to the allowed amount of the claims. Unsecured claims may receive any kind of "property," which is used in its broadest sense, as long as the present value of the property given to the holders of unsecured claims is equal to the allowed amount of the claims. Some kinds of property, such as securities, may require difficult valuations by the court; in such circumstances the court need only determine that there is a reasonable likelihood that the property given the dissenting class of impaired unsecured claims equals the present value of such allowed claims

Alternatively, under clause (ii), the court must confirm the plan if the plan provides that holders of any claims or interests junior to the interests of the dissenting class of impaired unsecured claims will not receive any property under the plan on account of such junior claims or interests. As long as senior creditors have not been paid more than in full, and classes of equal claims are being treated so that the dissenting class of impaired unsecured claims is not being discriminated against unfairly, the plan may be confirmed if the impaired class of unsecured claims receives less than 100 cents on the dollar (or nothing at all) as long as no class junior to the dissenting class receives anything at all. Such an impaired dissenting class may not prevent confirmation of a plan by objection merely because a senior class has elected to give up value to a junior class that is higher in priority than the impaired dissenting class of unsecured claims as long as the above safeguards are met. 

Subparagraph (C) applies to a dissenting class of impaired interests. Such interests may include the interests of general or limited partners in a partnership, the interests of a sole proprietor in a proprietorship, or the interest of common or preferred stockholders in a corporation. If the holders of such interests are entitled to a fixed liquidation preference or fixed redemption price on account of such interests then the plan may be confirmed notwithstanding the dissent of such class of interests as long as it provides the holders property of a present value equal to the greatest of the fixed redemption price, or the value of such interests. In the event there is no fixed liquidation preference or redemption price, then the plan may be confirmed as long as it provides the holders of such interests property of a present value equal to the value of such interests. If the interests are "under water" then they will be valueless and the plan may be confirmed notwithstanding the dissent of that class of interests even if the plan provides that the holders of such interests will not receive any property on account of such interests. 

Alternatively, under clause (ii), the court must confirm the plan notwithstanding the dissent of a class of interests if the plan provides that holders of any interests junior to the dissenting class of interests will not receive or retain any property on account of such junior interests. Clearly, if there are no junior interests junior to the class of dissenting interests, then the condition of clause (ii) is satisfied. The safeguards that no claim or interest receive more than 100 percent of the allowed amount of such claim or interest and that no class be discriminated against unfairly will insure that the plan is fair and equitable with respect to the dissenting class of interests. 

Except to the extent of the treatment of secured claims under subparagraph (A) of this statement, the House report remains an accurate description of confirmation of section 1129(b). Contrary to the example contained in the Senate report, a senior class will not be able to give up value to a junior class over the dissent of an intervening class unless the intervening class receives the full amount, as opposed to value, of its claims or interests. 

One last point deserves explanation with respect to the admittedly complex subject of confirmation. Section 1129(a)(7)(C) in effect exempts secured creditors making an election under section 1111(b)(2) from application of the best interest of creditors test. In the absence of an election the amount such creditors receive in a plan of liquidation would be the value of their collateral plus any amount recovered on the deficiency in the case of a recourse loan. However, under section 1111(b)(2), the creditors are given an allowed secured claim to the full extent the claim is allowed and have no unsecured deficiency. Since section 1129(b)(2)(A) makes clear that an electing class need receive payments of a present value only equal to the value of the collateral, it is conceivable that under such a "cram down" the electing creditors would receive nothing with respect to their deficiency. The advantage to the electing creditors is that they have a lien securing the full amount of the allowed claim so that if the value of the collateral increases after the case is closed, the deferred payments will be secured claims. Thus it is both reasonable and necessary to exempt such electing class from application of section 1129(a)(7) as a logical consequence of permitting election under section 1111(b)(2)

Section 1131 of the Senate amendment is deleted as unnecessary in light of the protection given a secured creditor under section 1129(b) of the House amendment. 

Payment of taxes in reorganizations: Under the provisions of section 1141 as revised by the House amendment, an individual in reorganization under chapter 11 will not be discharged from any debt, including prepetition tax liabilities, which are nondischargeable under section 523. Thus, an individual debtor whose plan of reorganization is confirmed under chapter 11 will remain liable for prepetition priority taxes, as defined in section 507, and for tax liabilities which receive no priority but are nondischargeable under section 523, including no return, late return, and fraud liabilities. 

In the case of a partnership or a corporation in reorganization under chapter 11 of title 11, section 1141(d)(1) of the House amendment adopts a provision limiting the taxes that must be provided for in a plan before a plan can be confirmed to taxes which receive priority under section 507. In addition, the House amendment makes dischargeable, in effect, tax liabilities attributable to no return, late return, or fraud situations. The amendment thus does not adopt a shareholder continuity test such as was contained in section 1141(d)(2)(A)(iii) of the Senate amendment. However, the House amendment amends section 1106, relating to duties of the trustee, to require the trustee to furnish, on request of a tax authority and without personal liability, information available to the trustee concerning potential prepetition tax liabilities for unfiled returns of the debtor. Depending on the condition of the debtor's books and records, this information may include schedules and files available to the business. The House amendment also does not prohibit a tax authority from disallowing any tax benefit claimed after the reorganization if the item originated in a deduction, credit, or other item improperly reported before the reorganization occurred. It may also be appropriate for the Congress to consider in the future imposing civil or criminal liability on corporate officers for preparing a false or fraudulent tax return. The House amendment also contemplates that the Internal Revenue Service will monitor the relief from liabilities under this provision and advise the Congress if, and to the extent, any significant tax abuse may be resulting from the provision. 

Medium of payment of taxes: Federal, State, and local taxes incurred during the administration period of the estate, and during the "gap" period in an involuntary case, are to be paid solely in cash. Taxes relating to third priority wages are to be paid, under the general rules, in cash on the effective date of the plan, if the class has not accepted the plan, in an amount equal to the allowed amount of the claim. If the class has accepted the plan, the taxes must be paid in cash but the payments must be made at the time the wages are paid which may be paid in deferred periodic installments having a value, on the effective date of the plan, equal to the allowed amount of the tax claims. Prepetition taxes entitled to sixth priority under section 507(a)(6) also must be paid in cash, but the plan may also permit the debtor whether a corporation, partnership, or an individual, to pay the allowed taxes in installments over a period not to exceed 6 years following the date on which the tax authority assesses the tax liability, provided the value of the deferred payments representing principal and interest, as of the effective date of the plan, equals the allowed amount of the tax claim

The House amendment also modifies the provisions of both bills dealing with the time when tax liabilities of a debtor in reorganization may be assessed by the tax authority. The House amendment follows the Senate amendment in deleting the limitation in present law under which a priority tax assessed after a reorganization plan is confirmed must be assessed within 1 year after the date of the filing of the petition. The House amendment specifies broadly that after the bankruptcy court determines the liability of the estate for a prepetition tax or for an administration period tax, the governmental unit may thereafter assess the tax against the estate, debtor, or successor to the debtor. The party to be assessed will, of course, depend on whether the case is under chapter 7, 11, or 13, whether the debtor is an individual, partnership, or a corporation, and whether the court is determining an individual debtor's personal liability for a nondischargeable tax. Assessment of the tax may only be made, however, within the limits of otherwise applicable law, such as the statute of limitations under the tax law. 

Tax avoidance purpose: The House bill provided that no reorganization plan may be approved if the principal purpose of the plan is the avoidance of taxes. The Senate amendment modified the rule so that the bankruptcy court need make a determination of tax avoidance purpose only if it is asked to do so by the appropriate tax authority. Under the Senate amendment, if the tax authority does not request the bankruptcy court to rule on the purpose of the plan, the tax authority would not be barred from later asserting a tax avoidance motive with respect to allowance of a deduction or other tax benefit claimed after the reorganization. The House amendment adopts the substance of the Senate amendment, but does not provide a basis by which a tax authority may collaterally attack confirmation of a plan of reorganization other than under section 1144

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835.

1988 Acts (Pub. L. 100-334). Senate Report No. 100-119. 

1986 Acts (Pub. L. 99-554). House Report No. 99-764 and House Conference Report No. 99-958.

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. (Section 1130 (enacted as section 1129)) Subsection (a) enumerates the requirement governing confirmation of a plan. The court is required to confirm a plan if and only if all of the requirements are met. 

Paragraph (1) requires that the plan comply with the applicable provisions of chapter 11, such as sections 1122 and 1123, governing classification and contents of plan. 

Paragraph (2) requires that the proponent of the plan comply with the applicable provisions of chapter 11, such as section 1125 regarding disclosure. 

Paragraph (3) requires that the plan have been proposed in good faith, and not by any means forbidden by law. 

Paragraph (4) is derived from section 221 of chapter X (section 621 of former title 11). It requires that any payment made or promised by the proponent, the debtor, or person issuing securities or acquiring property under the plan, for services or for costs and expenses in, or in connection with the case, or in connection with the plan and incident to the case, be disclosed to the court. In addition, any payment made before confirmation must have been reasonable, and any payment to be fixed after confirmation must be subject to the approval of the court as reasonable. 

Paragraph (5) is also derived from section 221 of chapter X (section 621 of former title 11). It requires the plan to disclose the identity and affiliations of any individual proposed to serve, after confirmation, as a director, officer, or voting trustee of the reorganized debtor. The appointment to or continuance in one of these offices by the individual must be consistent with the interests of creditors and equity security holders and with public policy. The plan must also disclose the identity of any insider that will be employed or retained by the reorganized debtor, and the nature of any compensation to be paid to the insider

Paragraph (6) permits confirmation only if any regulatory commission that will have jurisdiction over the debtor after confirmation of the plan has approved any rate change provided for in the plan. As an alternative, the rate change may be conditioned on such approval. 

Paragraph (7) provides that in the case of a public company the court shall confirm the plan if it finds the plan to be fair and equitable and the plan either (1) has been accepted by classes of claims or interests as provided in section 1126, or (2), if not so accepted, satisfies the requirements of subsection (b) of this section. 

Paragraphs (8) and (9) apply only in nonpublic cases. Paragraph (8) does not apply the fair and equitable standards in two situations. The first occurs if there is unanimous consent of all affected holders of claims and interests. It is also sufficient for purposes of confirmation if each holder of a claim or interest receives or retains consideration of a value, as of the effective date of the plan, that is not less than each would have or receive if the debtor were liquidated under chapter 7 of this title. This standard adapts the test of "best interest of creditors" as interpreted by the courts under chapter XI (chapter 11of former title 11). It is given broader application in chapter 11 of this title since a plan under chapter 11 may affect not only unsecured claims but secured claims and stock as well. 

Under paragraph (9)(A), if a class of claims or interests has not accepted the plan, the court will confirm the plan if, for the dissenting class and any class of equal rank, the negotiated plan provides in value no less than under a plan that is fair and equitable. Such review and determination are not required for any other classes that accepted the plan. 

Paragraph (9)(A) would permit a senior creditor to adjust his participation for the benefit of stockholders. In such a case, junior creditors, who have not been satisfied in full, may not object if, absent the "give-up", they are receiving all that a fair and equitable plan would give them. To illustrate, suppose the estate is valued at $1.5 million and claims and stock are: 

Claims and stock (millions)

Equity (millions)

(1) Senior debt

1.2

1.2

(2) Junior debt

(no value)  .5

.3

(3) Stock Total

1.7

1.5

Under the plan, the senior creditor gives up $100,000 in value for the benefit of stockholders as follows: 

 

Millions

(1) Senior debt

1.1

(2) Junior debt

.3

If the junior creditors dissent, the court may nevertheless confirm the plan since under the fair and equitable standard they had an equity of only $300,000 and the allocation to equity security holders did not affect them. 

Paragraph (9)(A) provides a special alternative with respect to secured claims. A plan may be confirmed against a dissenting class of secured claims if the plan or order of confirmation provides for the realization of their security (1) by the retention of the property subject to such security; (2) by a sale of the property and transfer of the claim to the proceeds of sale if the secured creditors were permitted to bid at the sale and set off against the purchase price up to the allowed amount of their claims; or (3) by such other method that will assure them the realization of the indubitable equivalent of the allowed amount of their secured claims. The indubitable equivalent language is intended to follow the strict approach taken by Judge Learned Hand in In Re Murel Holding Corp. 75, F.2d 941 (2nd Cir. 1935). 

Paragraph (9)(B) provides that, if a class of claims or interests is excluded from participation under the plan, the court may nevertheless confirm the plan if it determines that no class on a parity with or junior to such participates under the plan. In the previous illustration, no confirmation would be permitted if the negotiated plan would grant a participation to stockholders but nothing for junior creditors. As noted elsewhere, by reason of section 1126(g), an excluded class is a dissenting class under section 1130. 

Paragraph (10) states that, to be confirmed, the plan must provide that each holder of a claim under section 507 will receive property, as therein noted, of a value equal to the allowed amount of the claim. There are two exceptions: (A) The holder thereof may agree to a different settlement in part or in whole; (B) where a debtor's business is reorganized under chapter 11, this provision requires that taxes entitled to priority (including administrative claims or taxes) must be paid in cash not later than 120 days after the plan is confirmed, unless the Secretary of the Treasury agrees to other terms or kinds of payment. The bill, as introduced, required full payment in cash within 60 days after the plan is confirmed. 

Paragraph (11) requires a determination regarding feasibility of the plan. It is a slight elaboration of the law that has developed in the application of the word "feasible" in Chapter X of the present Act (chapter 10 of former title 11). 

Paragraph (12) requires that at least one class must accept the plan, but any claims or interests held by insiders are not to be included for purposes of determining the number and amount of acceptances. 

Subsection (b) provides that if, in the case of a public company, the plan meets the requirements of subsection (a) (except paragraphs (8) and (9) which do not apply to such a company), the court is to confirm the plan if the plan or the order of confirmation provides adequate protection for the realization of the value of the claims or interests of each class not accepting the plan. The intent is to incorporate inclusively, as a guide to the meaning of subsection (a) the provisions of section 216(7) ((former) 11 U.S.C. 616(7)) with respect to claims and section 216(8) ((former) 11 U.S.C. 616(8)) with respect to equity security interests. 

Under subsection (c) the court may confirm only one plan, unless the order of confirmation has been revoked under section 1144. If the requirements for confirmation are met with respect to more than one plan, the court shall consider the preferences of creditors and stockholders in deciding which plan to confirm. 

Subsection (d) provides that the bankruptcy court may not confirm a plan of reorganization if its principal purpose is the avoidance of taxes or the avoidance of section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77e). This rules modifies a similar provision of present law (section 269 of the Bankruptcy Act (section 669 of former title 11)). 

House Report No. 95-595. Paragraph (7) (of subsec. (a)) incorporates the former "best interest of creditors" test found in chapter 11, but spells out precisely what is intended. With respect to each class, the holders of the claims or interests of that class must receive or retain under the plan on account of those claims or interest property of a value, as of the effective date of the plan, that is not less than the amount that they would so receive or retain if the debtor were liquidated under chapter 7 on the effective date of the plan. 

In order to determine the hypothetical distribution in a liquidation, the court will have to consider the various subordination provisions of proposed 11 U.S.C. 510, 726(a)(3), 726(a)(4), and the postponement provisions of proposed 11 U.S.C. 724. Also applicable in appropriate cases will be the rules governing partnership distributions under proposed 11 U.S.C. 723, and distributions of community property under proposed 11 U.S.C. 726(c). Under subparagraph (A), a particular holder is permitted to accept less than liquidation value, but his acceptance does not bind the class. 

Property under subparagraph (B) may include securities of the debtor. Thus, the provision will apply in cases in which the plan is confirmed under proposed 11 U.S.C. 1129(b)

Paragraph (8) is central to the confirmation standards. It requires that each class either have accepted the plan or be unimpaired. 

Paragraph (9) augments the requirements of paragraph (8) by requiring payment of each priority claim in full. It permits payments over time and payment other than in cash, but payment in securities is not intended to be permitted without consent of the priority claimant even if the class has consented. It also permits a particular claimant to accept less than full payment. 

Subsection (b) permits the court to confirm a plan notwithstanding failure of compliance with paragraph (8) of subsection (a). The plan must comply with all other paragraphs of subsection (a), including paragraph (9). This subsection contains the so-called cramdown. It requires simply that the plan meet certain standards of fairness to dissenting creditors or equity security holders. The general principle of the subsection permits confirmation notwithstanding nonacceptance by an impaired class if that class and all below it in priority are treated according to the absolute priority rule. The dissenting class must be paid in full before any junior class may share under the plan. If it is paid in full, then junior classes may share. Treatment of classes of secured creditors is slightly different because they do not fall in the priority ladder, but the principle is the same. 

Specifically, the court may confirm a plan over the objection of a class of secured claims if the members of that class are unimpaired or if they are to receive under the plan property of a value equal to the allowed amount of their secured claims, as determined under proposed 11 U.S.C. 506(a). The property is to be valued as of the effective date of the plan, thus recognizing the time-value of money. As used throughout this subsection, "property" includes both tangible and intangible property, such as a security of the debtor or a successor to the debtor under a reorganization plan. 

The court may confirm over the dissent of a class of unsecured claims, including priority claims, only if the members of the class are unimpaired, if they will receive under the plan property of a value equal to the allowed amount of their unsecured claims, or if no class junior will share under the plan. That is, if the class is impaired, then they must be paid in full or, if paid less than in full, then no class junior may receive anything under the plan. This codifies the absolute priority rule from the dissenting class on down. 

With respect to classes of equity, the court may confirm over a dissent if the members of the class are unimpaired, if they receive their liquidation preference or redemption rights, if any, or if no class junior shares under the plan. This, too, is a codification of the absolute priority rule with respect to equity. If a partnership agreement subordinates limited partners to general partners to any degree, then the general principles of paragraph (3) of this subsection would apply to prevent the general partners from being squeezed out. 

One requirement applies generally to all classes before the court may confirm under this subsection. No class may be paid more than in full. 

The partial codification of the absolute priority rule here is not intended to deprive senior creditor of compensation for being required to take securities in the reorganized debtor that are of an equal priority with the securities offered to a junior class. Under current law, seniors are entitled to compensation for their loss of priority, and the increased risk put upon them by being required to give up their priority will be reflected in a lower value of the securities given to them than the value of comparable securities given to juniors that have not lost a priority position. 

Finally, the proponent must request use of this subsection. The court may not confirm notwithstanding nonacceptance unless the proponent requests and the court may then confirm only if subsection (b) is complied with. The court may not rewrite the plan. 

A more detailed explanation follows:

The test to be applied by the court is set forth in the various paragraphs of section 1129(b). The elements of the test are new(,) departing from both the absolute priority rule and the best interests of creditors tests found under the Bankruptcy Act (former title 11). The court is not permitted to alter the terms of the plan. It must merely decide whether the plan complies with the requirements of section 1129(b). If so, the plan is confirmed, if not the plan is denied confirmation. 

The procedure followed is simple. The court examines each class of claims or interests designated under section 1123(a)(1) to see if the requirements of section 1129(b) are met. If the class is a class of secured claims, then paragraph (1) contains two tests that must be complied with in order for confirmation to occur. First, under subparagraph (A), the court must be able to find that the consideration given under the plan on account of the secured claim does not exceed the allowed amount of the claim. This condition is not prescribed as a matter of law under section 1129(a), because if the secured claim is compensated in securities of the debtor, a valuation of the business would be necessary to determine the value of the consideration. While section 1129(a) does not contemplate a valuation of the debtor's business, such a valuation will almost always be required under section 1129(b) in order to determine the value of the consideration to be distributed under the plan. Once the valuation is performed, it becomes a simple matter to impose the criterion that no claim will be paid more than in full. 

Application of the test under subparagraph (A) also requires a valuation of the consideration "as of the effective date of the plan". This contemplates a present value analysis that will discount value to be received in the future; of course, if the interest rate paid is equivalent to the discount rate used, the present value and face future value will be identical. On the other hand, if no interest is proposed to be paid, the present value will be less than the face future value. For example, consider an allowed secured claim of $1,000 in a class by itself. One plan could propose to pay $1,000 on account of this claim as of the effective date of the plan. Another plan could propose to give a note with a $1,000 face amount due five years after the effective date of the plan on account of this claim. A third plan could propose to give a note in a face amount of $1,000 due five years from the effective date of the plan plus six percent annual interest commencing on the effective date of the plan on account of this claim. The first plan clearly meets the requirements of subparagraph (A) because the amount received on account of the second claim has an equivalent present value as of the effective date of the plan equal to the allowed amount of such claim

The second plan also meets the requirements of subparagraph (A) because the present value of the five years note as of the effective date of the plan will never exceed the allowed amount of the secured claim; the higher the discount rate, the less present value the note will have. Whether the third plan complies with subparagraph (A) depends on whether the discount rate is less than six percent. Normally, the interest rate used in the plan will be prima facie evidence of the discount rate because the interest rate will reflect an arms length determination of the risk of the security involved and feasibility considerations will tend to understate interest payments. If the court found the discount rate to be greater than or equal to the interest rate used in the plan, then subparagraph (A) would be complied with because the value of the note as of the effective date of the plan would not exceed the allowed amount of the second claim. If, however, the court found the discount rate to be less than the interest rate proposed under the plan, then the present value of the note would exceed $1,000 and the plan would fail of confirmation. On the other hand, it is important to recognize that the future principal amount of a note in excess of the allowed amount of a secured claim may have a present value less than such allowed amount, if the interest rate under the plan is correspondingly less than the discount rate. 

Even if the requirements of subparagraph (A) are complied with, the class of secured claims must satisfy one of the three clauses in paragraph (B) in order to pass muster. It is sufficient for confirmation if the class has accepted the plan, or if the claims of the class are unimpaired, or if each holder of a secured claim in the class will receive property of a value as of the effective date of the plan equal to the allowed amount of such claim (unless he has agreed to accept less). It is important to note that under section 506(a), the allowed amount of the secured claim will not include any extent to which the amount of such claim exceeds the value of the property securing such claim. Thus, instead of focusing on secured creditors or unsecured creditors, the statute focuses on secured claims and unsecured claims

After the court has applied paragraph (1) to each class of secured claims, it then applies paragraph (2) to each class of unsecured claims. Again two separate components must be tested. Subparagraph (A) is identical with the test under section 1129(b)(1)(A) insofar as the holder of an unsecured claim is not permitted to receive property of a value as of the effective date of the plan on account of such claim that is greater than the allowed amount of such claim. In addition, subparagraph (B) requires compliance with one of four conditions. The conditions in clauses (i)-(iii) mirror the conditions of acceptance unimpairment, or full value found in connection with secured claims in section 1129(b)(1)(B)

The condition contained in section 1129(b)(2)(B)(iv) provides another basis for confirming the plan with respect to a class of unsecured claims. It will be of greatest use when an impaired class that has not accepted the plan is to receive less than full value under the plan. The plan may be confirmed under clause (iv) in those circumstances if the class is not unfairly discriminated against with respect to equal classes and if junior classes will receive nothing under the plan. The second criterion is the easier to understand. It is designed to prevent a senior class from giving up consideration to a junior class unless every intermediate class consents, is paid in full, or is unimpaired. This gives intermediate creditors a great deal of leverage in negotiating with senior or secured creditors who wish to have a plan that gives value to equity. One aspect of this test that is not obvious is that whether one class is senior, equal, or junior to another class is relative and not absolute. Thus from the perspective of trade creditors holding unsecured claims, claims of senior and subordinated debentures may be entitled to share on an equal basis with the trade claims. However, from the perspective of the senior unsecured debt, the subordinated debentures are junior. 

This point illustrates the lack of precision in the first criterion which demands that a class not be unfairly discriminated against with respect to equal classes. From the perspective of unsecured trade claims, there is no unfair discrimination as long as the total consideration given all other classes of equal rank does not exceed the amount that would result from an exact aliquot distribution. Thus if trade creditors, senior debt, and subordinate debt are each owed $100 and the plan proposes to pay the trade debt $15, the senior debt $30, and the junior debt $0, the plan would not unfairly discriminate against the trade debt nor would any other allocation of consideration under the plan between the senior and junior debt be unfair as to the trade debt as long as the aggregate consideration is less than $30. The senior debt could take $25 and give up $5 to the junior debt and the trade debt would have no cause to complain because as far as it is concerned the junior debt is an equal class. 

However, in this latter case the senior debt would have been unfairly discriminated against because the trade debt was being unfairly over-compensated; of course the plan would also fail unless the senior debt was unimpaired, received full value, or accepted the plan, because from its perspective a junior class received property under the plan. Application of the test from the perspective of senior debt is best illustrated by the plan that proposes to pay trade debt $15, senior debt $25, and junior debt $0. Here the senior debt is being unfairly discriminated against with respect to the equal trade debt even though the trade debt receives less than the senior debt. The discrimination arises from the fact that the senior debt is entitled to the rights of the junior debt which in this example entitle the senior debt to share on a 2:1 basis with the trade debt

Finally, it is necessary to interpret the first criterion from the perspective of subordinated debt. The junior debt is subrogated to the rights of senior debt once the senior debt is paid in full. Thus, while the plan that pays trade debt $15, senior debt $25, and junior debt $0 is not unfairly discriminatory against the junior debt, a plan that proposes to pay trade debt $55, senior debt $100, and junior debt $1, would be unfairly discriminatory. In order to avoid discriminatory treatment against the junior debt, at least $10 would have to be received by such debt under those facts. 

The criterion of unfair discrimination is not derived from the fair and equitable rule or from the best interests of creditors test. Rather it preserves just treatment of a dissenting class from the class's own perspective. 

If each class of secured claims satisfies the requirements of section 1129(b)(1) and each class of unsecured claims satisfies the requirements of section 1129(b)(2), then the court must still see if each class of interests satisfies section 1129(b)(3) before the plan may be confirmed. Again, two separate criteria must be met. Under subparagraph (A) if the interest entitles the holder thereof to a fixed liquidation preference or if such interest may be redeemed at a fixed price, then the holder of such interest must not receive under the plan on account of such interest property of a value as of the effective date of the plan greater than the greater of these two values of the interest. Preferred stock would be an example of an interest likely to have liquidation preference or redemption price. 

If an interest such as most common stock or the interest of a general partnership has neither a fixed liquidation preference nor a fixed redemption price, then the criterion in subparagraph (A) is automatically fulfilled. In addition subparagraph (B) contains five clauses that impose alternative conditions of which at least one must be satisfied in order to warrant confirmation. The first two clauses contain requirements of acceptance or unimpairment similar to the first two clauses in paragraphs (1)(B) and (2)(B). Clause (iii) is similar to the unimpairment test contained in section 1124(3)(B), except that it will apply to cover the issuance securities of the debtor of a value as of the effective date of the plan equal to the greater of any fixed liquidation preference or redemption price. The fourth clause allows confirmation if junior interests are not compensated under the plan and the fifth clause allows confirmation if there are no junior interests. These clauses recognized that as long as senior classes receive no more than full payment, the objection of a junior class will not defeat confirmation unless a class junior to it is receiving value under the plan and the objecting class is impaired. While a determination of impairment may be made under section 1124(3)(B)(iii) without a precise valuation of the business when common stock is clearly under water, once section 1129(b) is used, a more detailed valuation is a necessary byproduct. Thus, if no property is given to a holder of an interest under the plan, the interest should be clearly worthless in order to find unimpairment under section 1124(3)(B)(iii) and section 1129(a)(8); otherwise, since a class of interests receiving no property is deemed to object under section 1126(g), the more precise valuation of section 1129(b) should be used. 

If all of the requirements of section 1129(b) are complied with, then the court may confirm the plan subject to other limitations such as those found in section 1129(a) and (d)

Subsection (c) of section 1129 governs confirmation when more than one plan meets the requirements of the section. The court must consider the preferences of creditors and equity security holders in determining which plan to confirm. 

Subsection (d) requires the court to deny confirmation if the principal purpose of the plan is the avoidance of taxes (through use of sections 346 and 1146, and applicable provisions of State law or the Internal Revenue Code (title 26) governing bankruptcy reorganizations) or the avoidance of section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77e) (through use of section 1145). 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1994

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 501(d)(32)(A)(i), substituted period for semicolon at end. 

Subsec. (a)(9)(B). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 304(h)(7)(i), substituted ", 507(a)(6), or 507(a)(7)" for "or 507(a)(6)". 

Subsec. (a)(9)(C). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 304(h)(7)(ii), substituted "507(a)(8)" for "507(a)(7)". 

Subsec. (a)(12). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 501(d)(32)(A)(ii), inserted "of title 28" after "section 1930". 

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 501(d)(32)(B), struck out "(15 U.S.C. 77e)" after "Act of 1933". 

1988 — Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 100-334 added par. (13). 

1986

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 283(v)(1), struck out "of" after "to". 

Subsec. (a)(9)(B). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 283(v)(2), inserted reference to section 507(a)(6).

Subsec. (a)(9)(C). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 283(v)(3), substituted "507(a)(7)" for "507(a)(6)". 

Subsec. (a)(12). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 225, added par. (12).

1984

Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(a)(1), (2), substituted "title" for "chapter". 

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(a)(3), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: 

(A) Any payment made or promised by the proponent, by the debtor, or by a person issuing securities or acquiring property under the plan, for services or for costs and expenses in, or in connection with, the case, or in connection with the plan and incident to the case, has been disclosed to the court; and 

(B)(i) any such payment made before confirmation of the plan is reasonable; or

(ii) if such payment is to be fixed after confirmation of the plan, such payment is subject to the approval of the court as reasonable." Subsec. (a)(5)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(a)(4), substituted "; and" for the period at the end. 

Subsec. (a)(5)(B). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(a)(5), substituted "the" for "The".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(a)(6), inserted "governmental" after "Any". 

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(a)(7)(A), substituted "of each impaired class of claims or interests" for "each class". 

Subsec. (a)(7)(B). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(a)(7)(B), substituted "holder's" for "creditor's".

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(a)(8), inserted "of claims or interests" after "each class". 

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(a)(9), substituted "If a class of claims is impaired under the plan, at least one class of claims that is impaired under the plan has accepted the plan, determined without including any acceptance of the plan by any insider" for "At least one class of claims has accepted the plan, determined without including any acceptance of the plan by any insider holding a claim of such class". 

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i)(I), (ii). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(b)(1), substituted "liens" for "lien" wherever appearing. 

Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(b)(2), inserted "under the plan" after "retain".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(b)(3), substituted "interest" for "claim", and "or the value" for "and the value". 

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 512(c), inserted "the application of" and provisions requiring that in any hearing under this subsection, the governmental unit has the burden of proof on the issue of avoidance.

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

Pub. L. 109-8, Title XII, § 1221(b); added section 1129(a)(16)  which provides that:

(a) The court shall confirm a plan only if all of the following requirements are met: 

(16) All transfers of property of the plan shall be made in accordance with any applicable provisions of nonbankruptcy law that govern the transfer of property by a corporation or trust that is not a moneyed, business, or commercial corporation or trust. 

Pub. L. 109-8, Title XII, § 1221(d) provided that: "The amendments made by this section shall apply to a case pending under title 11, United States Code, on the date of enactment of this Act, or filed under that title on or after that date of enactment, except that the court shall not confirm a plan under chapter 11 of title 11, United States Code, without considering whether this section would substantially affect the rights of a party in interest who first acquired rights with respect to the debtor after the date of the filing of the petition. The parties who may appear and be heard in a proceeding under this section include the attorney general of the State in which the debtor is incorporated, was formed, or does business." 

1994 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

1988 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 100-334 effective June 16, 1988, but not applicable to cases commenced under this title before that date, see section 4 of Pub. L. 100-334, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1114 of this title. 

1986 Acts. Effective date and applicability of amendment by section 225 of Pub. L. 99-554 dependent upon the judicial district involved, see section 302(d), (e) of Pub. L. 99-554, set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. 

Amendment by section 283 of Pub. L. 99-554 effective 30 days after Oct. 27, 1986, see section 302(a) of Pub. L. 99-554. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsec. (d), is classified to section 77e of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 347, 524, 901, 1112, 1114, 1123, 1127, 1146, 1161, 1173 of this title. 


FOOTNOTES(11 U.S.C. § 1129)

15 U.S.C. § 77e    •   


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1129)

BAPCPA § 213(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 321(c)(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 321(c)(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 438    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 710(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 710(2)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 710(3)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 1221(b)    •    House Report 109-31    •    BAPCPA § 1221(d)  & (e) contain  the following uncodifed provisions:

(d) Applicability.—The amendments made by this section shall apply to a case pending under title 11, United States Code, on the date of enactment of this Act, or filed under that title on or after that date of enactment, except that the court shall not confirm a plan under chapter 11 of title 11, United States Code, without considering whether this section would substantially affect the rights of a party in interest who first acquired rights with respect to the debtor after the date of the filing of the petition. The parties who may appear and be heard in a proceeding under this section include the attorney general of the State in which the debtor is incorporated, was formed, or does business.    •   

(e) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to require the court in which a case under chapter 11 of title 11, United States Code, is pending to remand or refer any proceeding, issue, or controversy to any other court or to require the approval of any other court for the transfer of property.    •   

BAPCPA § 1228(b) contains the following uncodified provision:

(b) Chapter 11 and Chapter 13 Cases—The court shall not confirm a plan of reorganization in the case of an individual under chapter 11 or 13 of title 11, United States Code, unless requested tax documents have been filed with the court.    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 1502(a)(8)(A)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 1502(a)(8)(B)    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1141)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1141(d) of the House amendment is derived from a comparable provision contained in the Senate amendment. However, section 1141(d)(2) of the House amendment is derived from the House bill as preferable to the Senate amendment. It is necessary for a corporation or partnership undergoing reorganization to be able to present its creditors with a fixed list of liabilities upon which the creditors or third parties can make intelligent decisions. 

Retaining an exception for discharge with respect to nondischargeable taxes would leave an undesirable uncertainty surrounding reorganizations that is unacceptable. Section 1141(d)(3) is derived from the Senate amendment. Section 1141(d)(4) is likewise derived from the Senate amendment. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. Subsection (a) of this section makes the provisions of a confirmed plan binding on the debtor, any entity issuing securities under the plan, any entity acquiring property under the plan, and any creditor, equity security holders, or general partner in the debtor, whether or not the claim or interest of the creditor, equity security holders, or partner is impaired under the plan and whether or not he has accepted the plan. There are two exceptions, enumerated in paragraph (2) and (3) of subsection (d)

Unless the plan or the order confirming the plan provides otherwise, the confirmation of a plan vests all of the property of the estate in the debtor and releases it from all claims and interests of creditors, equity security holders and general partners. 

Subsection (d) contains the discharge for a reorganized debtor

Paragraph (1) specifies that the confirmation of a plan discharges the debtor from any debt that arose before the date of the order for relief unless the plan or the order confirming the plan provides otherwise. The discharge is effective against those claims whether or not proof of the claim is filed (or deemed filed), and whether or not the claim is allowed. The discharge also terminates all rights and interests of equity security holders and general partners provided for by the plan. The paragraph permits the plan or the order confirming the plan to provide otherwise, and excepts certain debts from the discharge as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3)

Paragraph (2) of subsection (d) makes clear what taxes remain nondischargeable in the case of a corporate debtor emerging from a reorganization under chapter 11. Nondischargeable taxes in such a reorganization are the priority taxes (under section 507) and tax payments which come due during and after the proceeding under a deferred or part-payment agreement which the debtor had entered into with the tax authority before the bankruptcy proceedings began. On the other hand, a corporation which is taken over by its creditors through a plan of reorganization will not continue to be liable for nonpriority taxes arising from the corporation's prepetition fraud, failure to file a return, or failure to file a timely return, since the creditors who take over the reorganized company should not bear the burden of acts for which the creditors were not at fault. 

Paragraph (3) specifies that the debtor is not discharged by the confirmation of a plan if the plan is a liquidating plan and if the debtor would be denied discharge in a liquidation case under section 727. Specifically, if all or substantially all of the distribution under the plan is of all or substantially all of the property of the estate or the proceeds of it, if the business, if any, of the debtor does not continue, and if the debtor would be denied a discharge under section 727 (such as if the debtor were not an individual or if he had committed an act that would lead to a denial of discharge), the chapter 11 discharge is not granted. 

Paragraph (4) authorizes the court to approve a waiver of discharge by the debtor

House Report No. 95-595. Paragraph (2) (of subsec. (d)) makes applicable to an individual debtor the general exceptions to discharge that are enumerated in section 523(a) of the bankruptcy code. 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1984

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 513(a), substituted "any creditor, equity security holders, or general partner in" for "any creditor or equity security holders of, or general partner in,". 

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 513(b), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "After confirmation of a plan, the property dealt with by the plan is free and clear of all claims and interests of creditors, of equity security holders, and of general partners in the debtor, except as otherwise provided in the plan or in the order confirming the plan.". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, § 330(b) added section 1141(d)(5)(C) to provide that "unless after notice and a hearing held not more than 10 days before the date of the entry of the order granting the discharge, the court finds that there is no reasonable cause to believe that—

"(i) section 522(q)(1) may be applicable to the debtor; and 

"(ii) there is pending any proceeding in which the debtor may be found guilty of a felony of the kind described in section 522(q)(1)(A) or liable for a debt of the kind described in section 522(q)(1)(B)."            

Pursuant to  Pub. L. 109-8, Title VI, § 1501(b)(2) these additions "apply with respect to cases commenced under title 11, United States Code, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act."

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 106, 348, 523, 524, 727, 1112 of this title; title 12 section 1715z-1a 


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1141)

BAPCPA § 321(d)(1)    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 321(d)(2 amended BC § 1141(d) by adding par. (5)(A) & (B)).    •    House Report 109-31    •   

BAPCPA § 330(b added BC § 1141(d)(5)(C))    •    House Report 109-31 (§ 106)    •    BAPCPA § 1501 provides as follows:

(a) Effective Date.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act, this Act and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act.    •   

(b) Application of Amendments.—

(1) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act and paragraph (2), the amendments made by this Act shall not apply with respect to cases commenced under title 11, United States Code, before the effective date of this Act.    •   

(2) Certain Limitations Applicable to Debtors.—The amendments made by sections 308, 322, and 330 shall apply with respect to cases commenced under title 11, United States Code, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.    •   

BAPCPA § 708    •    House Report 109-31    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1142)


AMENDMENTS

1984

 Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 514(a), substituted "Implementation" for "Execution" in section catchline. 

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 514(c), struck out the comma after "shall carry out the plan". 

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 514(d), inserted "a" after "by". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

 1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 106, 524, 901 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1143)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. Section 1143 fixes a 5-year limitation on presentment or surrender of securities or the performance of any other act that is a condition to participation in distribution under the plan. The 5 years runs from the date of the entry of the order of confirmation. Any entity that does not take the appropriate action with the 5-year period is barred from participation in the distribution under the plan. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 106, 901 of this title. 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1144)


LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. If an order of confirmation was procured by fraud, then the court may revoke the order on request of a party in interest if the request is made before 180 days after the date of the entry of the order of confirmation. The order revoking the order of confirmation must revoke the discharge of the debtor, and contain such provisions as are necessary to protect any entity acquiring rights in good faith reliance on the order of confirmation. 

AMENDMENTS

1984 — Pub. L. 98-353 inserted "if and only" after "revoke such order". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 524, 901, 1112, 1129 of this title 


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1145)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1145 of the House amendment deletes a provision contained in section 1145(a)(1) of the House bill in favor of a more adequate provision contained in section 364(f) of the House amendment. In addition, section 1145(d) has been added to indicate that the Trust Indenture Act (15 U.S.C. 77aaa et seq.) does not apply to a commercial note issued under a plan, if the note matures not later than 1 year after the effective date of the plan. Some commercial notes receive such an exemption under 304(a)(4) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S.C. Sec. 77ddd(a)(4)) and others may receive protection by incorporation by reference into the Trust Indenture Act of securities exempt under section 3a(3), (7), (9), or (10) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77c(a)(3), (7), (9), (10)). 

In light of the amendments made to the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.) in title III of the House amendment to H.R. 8200, a specific exemption from the Trust Indenture Act (15 U.S.C. 77aaa et seq.) is required in order to create certainty regarding plans of reorganization. Section 1145(d) is not intended to imply that commercial notes issued under a plan that matures more than 1 year after the effective date of the plan are automatically covered by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 since such notes may fall within another exemption thereto. 

One other point with respect to Section 1145 deserves comment. Section 1145(a)(3) grants a debtor in possession or trustee in chapter 11 an extremely narrow portfolio security exemption from section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77e) or any comparable State law. The provision was considered by Congress and adopted after much study. The exemption is reasonable and is more restrictive than comparable provisions under the Securities Act (15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.) relating to the estates of decedents. Subsequent to passage of H.R. 8200 by the House of Representatives, the Securities and Exchange Commission promulgated Rule 148 to treat with this problem under existing law. Members of Congress received opinions from attorneys indicating dissatisfaction with the Commission's rule although the rule has been amended, the ultimate limitation of 1 percent promulgated by the Commission is wholly unacceptable. 

The Commission rule would permit a trustee or debtor in possession to distribute securities at the rate of 1 percent every 6 months. Section 1145(a)(3) permits the trustee to distribute 4 percent of the securities during the 2-year period immediately following the date of the filing of the petition. In addition, the security must be of a reporting company under section 13 of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78m), and must be in compliance with all applicable requirements for the continuing of trading in the security on the date that the trustee offers or sells the security. 

With these safeguards the trustee or debtor in possession should be able to distribute 4 percent of the securities of a class at any time during the 2-year period immediately following the date of the filing of the petition in the interests of expediting bankruptcy administration. The same rationale that applies in expeditiously terminating decedents' estates applies no less to an estate under title 11

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

1994 Acts (Pub. L. 103-394). House Report No. 103-835. 

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. This section, derived from similar provisions found in sections 264, 393, and 518 of the Bankruptcy Act (sections 664, 793, and 918 of former title 11), provides a limited exemption from the securities laws for securities issued under a plan of reorganization and for certain other securities. Subsection (a) exempts from the requirements of section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77e) and from any State or local law requiring registration or licensing of an issuer of, underwriter of, or broker or dealer in, a security, the offer or sale of certain securities

Paragraph (1) of subsection (a) exempts the offer or sale under section 364 of any security that is not an equity security or convertible into an equity security. This paragraph is designed to facilitate the issuance of certificates of indebtedness, and should be read in light of the amendment made in section 306 of title III to section 3(a)(7) of the 1933 act (15 U.S.C. 77c(a)(7)). 

Paragraph (2) of subsection (a) exempts the offer or sale of any security of the debtor, a successor to the debtor, or an affiliate in a joint plan, distributed under a plan if such security is exchanged in principal part for securities of the debtor or for allowed claims or administrative expenses. This exemption is carried over from present law, except as to administrative claims, but is limited to prevent distribution of securities to other than claim holders or equity security holders of the debtor or the estate. 

Paragraph (3) of subsection (a) exempts the offer or sale of any security that arises from the exercise of a subscription right or from the exercise of a conversion privilege when such subscription right or conversion privilege was issued under a plan. This exemption is necessary in order to enhance the marketability of subscription rights or conversion privileges, including warrants, offered or sold under a plan. This is present law. 

Paragraph (4) of subsection (a) exempts sales of portfolio securities, excluding securities of the debtor or its affiliate, owned by the debtor on the date of the filing of the petition. The purpose of this exemption is to allow the debtor or trustee to sell or distribute, without allowing manipulation schemes, restricted portfolio securities held or acquired by the debtor. Subparagraph (B) of section 1145(a)(4) limits the exemption to securities of a company that is required to file reports under section 13 of the Securities Act (15 U.S.C. 78m) and that is in compliance with all requirements for the continuance of trading those securities. This limitation effectively prevents selling into the market "cats and dogs" of a nonreporting company. Subparagraph (C) places a limitation on the amount of restricted securities that may be distributed. During the case, the trustee may sell up to 4 percent of each class of restricted securities at any time during the first 2 years and 1 percent during any 180-day period thereafter. This relaxation of the resale rules for debtors in holding restricted securities is similar to but less extensive than the relaxation in SEC Rule 114(c)(3)(v) for the estates of deceased holders of securities

Paragraph (5) contains an exemption for brokers and dealers (stockbrokers, as defined in title 11) akin to the exemption provided by section 4(3)(A) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77d(3)(A)). Instead of being required to supply a prospectus, however, the stockbroker is required to supply the approved disclosure statement, and if the court orders, information supplementing the disclosure statement. Under present law, the stockholder is not required to supply anything. 

Subsection (b) is new. The subsection should be read in light of the amendment in section 306 of title III to the 1933 act (15 U.S.C. 77c(a)(7), (9), (10)). It specifies the standards under which a creditor, equity security holders, or other entity acquiring securities under the plan may resell them. The Securities Act places limitations on sales by underwriters. This subsection defines who is an underwriter, and thus restricted, and who is free to resell. Paragraph (1) enumerates real underwriters that participate in a classical underwriting. A person is an underwriter if he purchases a claim against, interest in, or claim for an administrative expense in the case concerning, the debtor, with a view to distribution or interest. This provision covers the purchase of a certificate of indebtedness issued under proposed 11 U.S.C. 364 and purchased from the debtor, if the purchase of the certificate was with a view to distribution. 

A person is also an underwriter if he offers to sell securities offered or sold under the plan for the holders of such securities, or offers to buy securities offered or sold under the plan from the holders of such securities, if the offer to buy is with a view to distribution of the securities and under an agreement made in connection with the plan, with the consummation of the plan or with the offer or sale of securities under the plan. Finally, a person is an underwriter if he is an issuer, as used in section 2(11) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77b(11)). 

Paragraph (2) of subsection (b) exempts from the definition of underwriter any entity to the extent that any agreement that would bring the entity under the definition in paragraph (1) provides only for the matching combination of fractional interests in the covered securities or the purchase or sale of fractional interests. This paragraph and paragraph (1) are modeled after former rule 133 of the Securities and Exchange Commission. 

Paragraph (3) specifies that if an entity is not an underwriter under the provisions of paragraph (1), as limited by paragraph (2), then the entity is not an underwriter for the purposes of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.) with respect to the covered securities, that is, those offered or sold in an exempt transaction specified in subsection (a)(2). This makes clear that the current definition of underwriter in section 2(11) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77b(11)) does not apply to such a creditor. The definition in that section technically applies to any person that purchases securities with "a view to distribution." If literally applied, it would prevent any creditor in a bankruptcy case from selling securities received without filing a registration statement or finding another exemption. 

Subsection (b) is a first run transaction exemption and does not exempt a creditor that, for example, some years later becomes an underwriter by reacquiring securities originally issued under a plan. 

Subsection (c) makes an offer or sale of securities under the plan in an exempt transaction (as specified in subsection (a)(2)) a public offering, in order to prevent characterization of the distribution as a "private placement" which would result in restrictions, under rule 144 of the SEC, on the resale of the securities

AMENDMENTS

1994

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 501(d)(33)(A), in introductory provisions struck out "(15 U.S.C. 77e)" after "Act of 1933" and substituted "do not apply" for "does not apply" and in par. (3)(B)(i) struck out "(15 U.S.C. 78m or 78o(d))" after "Act of 1934". 

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 501(d)(33)(B), struck out "(15 U.S.C. 77b(11))" after "Act of 1933". 

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103-394, Sec. 501(d)(33)(C), struck out "(15 U.S.C. 77aaa et seq.)" after "Act of 1939". 

1984

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 516(a)(1), inserted "or 15(d)" after "13", and "or 78o(d)" after "78m". 

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 516(a)(2), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "in compliance with all applicable requirements for the continuance of trading in such security on the date of such offer or sale; and". 

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 516(a)(3), substituted "stockbroker" for "stockholder" in two places.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 516(b)(1), inserted "and except with respect to ordinary trading transactions of an entity that is not an issuer". 

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 516(b)(2), substituted "from" for "for".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 516(b)(3), substituted "or combining" for "combination". 

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 516(b)(4), substituted "from or to" for "among".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 516(c), struck out "commercial" before "note". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

1994 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsec. (a), is classified to section 77e of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. 

Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i), are classified to sections 78m and 78o(d), respectively, of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. 

Section 2(11) of the Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsec. (b), was redesignated section 2(a)(11) of the Act by Pub. 

L. 104-290, title I, Sec. 106(a)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3424, and is classified to section 77b(a)(11) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. 

The Trust Indenture Act of 1939, referred to in subsec. (d), is title III of act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1149, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (Sec. 77aaa et seq.) of chapter 2A of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77aaa of Title 15 and Tables. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 364, 901 of this title. 


FOOTNOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1145)

15 U.S.C. § 78o-6    •   

15 U.S.C. § 77e    •   

15 U.S.C. § 77b    •      -  1145(b)(1)  -  1145(b)(2)  -  1145(b)(3)

15 U.S.C. § 77aaa    •   


HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES (11 U.S.C. § 1146)


LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS

Section 1146 of the House amendment represents a compromise between the House bill and Senate amendment. 

Special tax provisions: reorganization: The House bill provided rules on the effect of bankruptcy on the taxable year of the debtor and on tax return filing requirements for State and local taxes only. The House bill also exempted from State or local stamp taxes the issuance, transfer, or exchange of a security, or the making or delivery of an instrument of transfer under a plan. The House bill also authorized the bankruptcy court to declare the tax effects of a reorganization plan after the proponent of the plan had requested a ruling from State or local tax authority and either had received an unfavorable ruling or the tax authority had not issued a ruling within 270 days. 

The Senate amendment deleted the rules concerning the taxable years of the debtor and tax return filing requirements since the Federal rules were to be considered in the next Congress. It broadened the rule exempting transfers of securities to include Federal stamp or similar taxes, if any. In addition, the Senate amendment deleted the provision which permitted the bankruptcy court to determine the tax effects of a plan. 

The House amendment retains the State and local rules in the House bill with one modification. Under the House amendment, the power of the bankruptcy court to declare the tax effects of the plan is limited to issues of law and not to questions of fact such as the allowance of specific deductions. Thus, the bankruptcy court could declare whether the reorganization qualified for taxfree status under State or local tax rules, but it could not declare the dollar amount of any tax attributes that survive the reorganization. 

LEGISLATIVE REPORTS

2005 Acts (Pub. L. 109-8). House Report No. 109-31

1978 Acts (Pub. L. 95-598).

Senate Report No. 95-989. Section 1146 provides special tax rules applicable to Title 11 reorganizations. Subsection (a) provides that the taxable period of an individual debtor terminates on the date of the order for relief, unless the case has been converted into a reorganization from a liquidation proceeding. 

Subsection (b) requires the trustee of the estate of an individual debtor in a reorganization to file a tax return for each taxable period while the case is pending after the order for relief. For corporations in chapter 11, the trustee is required to file the tax returns due while the case is pending (sec. 346(c)(2)). 

Subsection (c) exempts from Federal, State, or local stamp taxes the issuance, transfer, or exchange of a security, or the making or delivery of an instrument of transfer under a plan. This subsection is derived from section 267 of the present Bankruptcy Act (section 667 of former title 11). 

Subsection (d) permits the court to authorize the proponent of a reorganization plan to request from the Internal Revenue Service (or State or local tax authority) an advance ruling on the tax effects of the proposed plan. If a ruling is not obtained within 270 days after the request was made, or if a ruling is obtained but the proponent of the plan disagrees with the ruling, the bankruptcy court may resolve the dispute and determine the tax effects of the proposed plan. 

Subsection (e) provides that prepetition taxes which are nondischargeable in a reorganization, and all taxes arising during the administration period of the case, may be assessed and collected from the debtor or the debtor's successor in a reorganization (see sec. 505(c) of the bill). 

House Report No. 95-595. Section 1146 of title 11 specifies five subsections which embody special tax provisions that apply in a case under chapter 11 of title 11. Subsection (a) indicates that the tax year of an individual debtor terminates on the date of the order for relief under chapter 11. Termination of the taxable year of the debtor commences the tax period of the estate. If the case was converted from chapter 7 of title 11 then the estate is created as a separate taxable entity dating from the order for relief under chapter 7. If multiple conversion of the case occurs, then the estate is treated as a separate taxable entity on the date of the order for relief under the first chapter under which the estate is a separate taxable entity

Subsection (d) permits the court to authorize the proponent of a plan to request a taxing authority to declare the tax effects of such plan. In the event of an actual controversy, the court may declare the tax effects of the plan of reorganization at any time after the earlier of action by such taxing authority or 270 days after the request. Such a declaration, unless appealed, becomes a final judgment and binds any tax authority that was requested by the proponent to determine the tax effects of the plan. 

AMENDMENTS

2005 — Will be supplemented. 

1984

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 517(a), struck out "State or local" before "law imposing a stamp tax". 

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 517(b), substituted "or" for "and". 

EFFECTIVE DATES

2005 Acts. Pub. L. 109-8, Title XV, § 1501, Apr. 20, 2005, provided that, except as otherwise specifically provided, all amendments, except for amendments provided in Pub. L. 109-8, Title III, §§ 308, 322, and 330 are effective 180 days after enactment of the Act on April 20, 2005 (which occurs on October 17, 2005), and are inapplicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11 before the effective date. 

1984 Acts. Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title. 

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS

This section is referred to in sections 106, 346, 348 of this title; title 28 section 2201. 


BAPCPA & LEGISLATIVE REPORT LINKS (11 U.S.C. § 1146)

BAPCPA § 719(b)(3)(A)    •    House Report 109-31    •      -  1146(a)(old)  -   1146(b)(old)

BAPCPA § 719(b)(3)(B)    •    House Report 109-31    •      -  1146(a)(new)  -   1146(b)(new)


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